Chapter 19

Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu Instructs Srila Rupa Gosvami

 

A summary of this chapter is given by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Amrta-pravaha-bhasya. Meeting Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in a village called Ramakeli, two brothers, Rupa and Sanatana, began to devise means to get out of their government service. Both brothers appointed some brahmanas to perform purascarana ceremonies and chant the holy name of Krsna. Srila Rupa Gosvami deposited ten thousand gold coins with a grocer, and the balance he brought in two boats to a place called Bakla Candradvipa. There he divided this money among the brahmanas, Vaisnavas and his relatives, and a portion he kept for emergency measures and personal needs. He was informed that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was going to Vrndavana from Jagannatha Puri through the forest of Madhya Pradesh; therefore he sent two people to Jagannatha Puri to find out when the Lord would leave for Vrndavana. In this way Rupa Gosvami retired, but Sanatana Gosvami told the Nawab that he was sick and could not attend to his work. Giving this excuse, he sat home and studied Srimad-Bhagavatam with learned brahmana scholars. The Nawab Hussain Shah first sent his personal physician to see what the real facts were; then he personally came to see why Sanatana was not attending to official business. Knowing that he wanted to resign his post, the Nawab had him arrested and imprisoned. The Nawab then went off to attack Orissa.

When Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu started for Vrndavana through the forest of Madhya Pradesh (Jharikhanda), Rupa Gosvami left home and sent news to Sanatana that he was leaving home with his younger brother (Anupama Mallika) to meet Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Srila Rupa Gosvami finally reached Prayaga and met with Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu for ten successive days. During this time, Vallabha Bhatta extended an invitation to the Lord with great respect. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu introduced Srila Rupa Gosvami to Vallabha Bhatta. After this, a brahmana scholar named Raghupati Upadhyaya arrived and discussed Krsna consciousness with the Lord. Kaviraja Gosvami then extensively describes the living condition of Sri Rupa and Sanatana at Vrndavana. During the ten days at Prayaga, Srila Rupa Gosvami was instructed by the Lord, who gave him the basic principles of the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu. The Lord then sent Srila Rupa Gosvami to Vrndavana. The Lord Himself returned to Varanasi and stayed at the home of Candrasekhara.

 

TEXT 1

 

TEXT

 

vrndavaniyam rasa-keli-vartam

kalena luptam nija-saktim utkah

sancarya rupe vyatanot punah sa

prabhur vidhau prag iva loka-srstim

 

SYNONYMS

 

vrndavaniyam--related to Vrndavana; rasa-keli-vartam--talks about the pastimes of Sri Krsna; kalena--with the course of time; luptam--lost; nija-saktim--His personal potency; utkah--being eager; sancarya--infusing; rupe--to Rupa Gosvami; vyatanot--manifested; punah--again; sah--He; prabhuh--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; vidhau--unto Lord Brahma; prak iva--as formerly; loka-srstim--the creation of this cosmic manifestation.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Before the creation of this cosmic manifestation, the Lord enlightened the heart of Lord Brahma with the details of the creation and manifested the Vedic knowledge. In exactly the same way, the Lord, being anxious to revive the Vrndavana pastimes of Lord Krsna, impregnated the heart of Rupa Gosvami with spiritual potency. By this potency, Srila Rupa Gosvami could revive the activities of Krsna in Vrndavana, activities almost lost to memory. In this way, He spread Krsna consciousness throughout the world.

 

TEXT 2

 

TEXT

 

jaya jaya sri-caitanya jaya nityananda

jayadvaita-candra jaya gaura-bhakta-vrnda

 

SYNONYMS

 

jaya jaya sri-caitanya--all glories to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; jaya nityananda--all glories to Lord Nityananda; jaya advaita-candra--all glories to Advaita Prabhu; jaya gaura-bhakta-vrnda--all glories to the devotees of the Lord.

 

TRANSLATION

 

All glories to Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityananda! All glories to Advaitacandra! And all glories to all the devotees of the Lord!

 

TEXT 3

 

TEXT

 

sri-rupa-sanatana rahe ramakeli-grame

prabhure miliya gela apana-bhavane

 

SYNONYMS

 

sri-rupa-sanatana--the brothers named Rupa and Sanatana; rahe--stayed; ramakeli-grame--in Ramakeli; prabhure--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; miliya--meeting; gela--went back; apana-bhavane--to their own homes.

 

TRANSLATION

 

After meeting Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in the village of Ramakeli, the brothers Rupa and Sanatana returned to their homes.

 

TEXT 4

 

TEXT

 

dui-bhai visaya-tyagera upaya srjila

bhau-dhana diya dui brahmane varila

 

SYNONYMS

 

dui-bhai--the two brothers; visaya-tyagera--of giving up material activities; upaya srjila--discovered a means; bahu-dhana--much money; diya--paying; dui brahmane--two brahmanas; varila--appointed.

 

TRANSLATION

 

The two brothers devised a means whereby they could give up their material activities. For this purpose, they appointed two brahmanas and paid them a large amount of money.

 

TEXT 5

 

TEXT

 

krsna-mantre karaila dui purascarana

acirat paibare caitanya-carana

 

SYNONYMS

 

krsna-mantre--in the holy mantra Hare Krsna; karaila--caused to perform; dui--two; purascarana--religious ceremonies; acirat--without delay; paibare--to get; caitanya-carana--the shelter of the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

TRANSLATION

 

The brahmanas performed religious ceremonies and chanted the holy name of Krsna so that the two brothers might attain shelter at the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu very soon.

 

PURPORT

 

A purascarana is a ritualistic ceremony performed under the guidance of an expert spiritual master or a brahmana. It is performed for the fulfillment of certain desires. One rises early in the morning, chants the Hare Krsna mantra, performs arcana by the arati ceremony and worships the Deities. These activities are described in the Fifteenth Chapter, verse 108.

 

TEXT 6

 

TEXT

 

sri-rupa-gosani tabe naukate bhariya

sri-rupa-gosani apanara ghare aila bahu-dhana lana

 

SYNONYMS

 

sri-rupa-gosani--Sri Rupa Gosvami; tabe--thereafter; naukate bhariya--filling boats; apanara ghare--to his own house; aila--returned; bahu-dhana lana--taking large amounts of riches.

 

TRANSLATION

 

At this time, Sri Rupa Gosvami returned home, taking with him large quantities of riches loaded in boats.

 

TEXT 7

 

TEXT

 

brahmana-vaisnave dila tara ardha-dhane

eka cauthi dhana dila kutumba-bharane

 

SYNONYMS

 

brahmana-vaisnave--to the brahmanas and Vaisnavas; dila--gave as charity; tara--of the riches; ardha-dhane--fifty percent; eka cauthi dhana--one-fourth of the riches; dila--gave; kutumba-bharane--to satisfy the relatives.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Srila Rupa Gosvami divided the wealth that he brought back home. He gave fifty percent in charity to brahmanas and Vaisnavas and twenty-five percent to his relatives.

 

PURPORT

 

This is a practical example of how one should divide his money and retire from household life. Fifty percent of one's money should be distributed to qualified and pure devotees of the Lord. Twenty-five percent may be given to family members, and twenty-five percent may be kept for personal use in case of emergency.

 

TEXT 8

 

TEXT

 

danda-bandha lagi' cauthi sancaya karila

bhala-bhala vipra-sthane sthapya rakhila

 

SYNONYMS

 

danda-bandha lagi'--in case of legal implications; cauthi--one-fourth; sancaya karila--he collected; bhala-bhala--very respectable; vipra-sthane--in the custody of a brahmana; sthapya rakhila--kept deposited.

 

TRANSLATION

 

He kept one-fourth of his wealth with a respectable brahmana. He kept this for his personal safety because he was expecting some legal complications.

 

TEXT 9

 

TEXT

 

gaude rakhila mudra dasa-hajare

sanatana vyaya kare, rakhe mudi-ghare

 

SYNONYMS

 

gaude--in Bengal; rakhila--kept; mudra--coins; dasa-hajare--ten thousand; sanatana--his elder brother; vyaya kare--spent; rakhe--deposited; mudi-ghare--in the place of a local grocer.

 

TRANSLATION

 

He deposited ten thousand coins, which were later spent by Sri Sanatana Gosvami, in the custody of a local Bengali grocer.

 

TEXT 10

 

TEXT

 

sri-rupa sunila prabhura niladri-gamana

vana-pathe yabena prabhu sri-vrndavana

 

SYNONYMS

 

sri-rupa--Srila Rupa Gosvami; sunila--heard; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; niladri-gamana--departure for Jagannatha Puri; vana-pathe--on the path through the forest; yabena--will go; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sri-vrndavana--to Vrndavana.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Rupa Gosvami heard that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu had returned to Jagannatha Puri and was preparing to go to Vrndavana through the forest.

 

TEXT 11

 

TEXT

 

rupa-gosani nilacale pathaila dui-jana

prabhu yabe vrndavana karena gamana

 

SYNONYMS

 

rupa-gosani--Rupa Gosvami; nilacale--to Jagannatha Puri; pathaila--sent; dui-jana--two persons; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; yabe--when; vrndavana--to Vrndavana; karena--makes; gamana--departure.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Rupa Gosvami sent two people to Jagannatha Puri to find out when Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu would depart for Vrndavana.

 

TEXT 12

 

TEXT

 

sighra asi' more tanra diba samacara

suniya tad-anurupa kariba vyavahara

 

SYNONYMS

 

sighra asi'--very hastily returning; more--unto me; tanra--His; diba--give; samacara--news; suniya--hearing; tat-anurupa--accordingly; kariba--I shall make; vyavahara--arrangements.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Rupa Gosvami told the two men, "You are to return quickly and let me know when He will depart. Then I shall make the proper arrangements."

 

TEXT 13

 

TEXT

 

etha sanatana-gosani bhave mane mana

raja more priti kare, se----mora bandhana

 

SYNONYMS

 

etha--here (in Gauda-desa); sanatana-gosani--the elder brother, Sanatana Gosvami; bhave--considers; mane mana--in the mind; raja--the Nawab; more--me; priti kare--loves very much; se--that; mora--my; bandhana--great obligation.

 

TRANSLATION

 

While Sanatana Gosvami was at Gauda-desa, he was thinking, "The Nawab is very pleased with me. I certainly have an obligation.

 

TEXT 14

 

TEXT

 

kona mate raja yadi more kruddha haya

tabe avyahati haya, karilun niscaya

 

SYNONYMS

 

kona mate--somehow or other; raja--the Nawab; yadi--if; more--upon me; kruddha haya--becomes angry; tabe--then; avyahati--escape; haya--there is; karilun niscaya--I have decided.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Somehow or other, if the Nawab becomes angry with me, I shall be greatly relieved. That is my conclusion."

 

TEXT 15

 

TEXT

 

asvasthyera chadma kari' rahe nija-ghare

raja-karya chadila, na yaya raja-dvare

 

SYNONYMS

 

asvasthyera--of not being well; chadma--pretext; kari'--making; rahe--remains; nija-ghare--at home; raja-karya--government service; chadila--relinquished; na yaya--did not go; raja-dvare--to the court of the Nawab.

 

TRANSLATION

 

On the pretext of bad health, Sanatana Gosvami remained home. Thus he gave up government service and did not go to the royal court.

 

TEXT 16

 

TEXT

 

lobhi kayastha-gana raja-karya kare

apane svagrhe kare sastrera vicare

 

SYNONYMS

 

lobhi--greedy; kayastha-gana--persons engaged in secretarial and clerical work; raja-karya kare--executed the government service; apane--personally; sva-grhe--at home; kare--did; sastrera vicare--discussion of the revealed scriptures.

 

TRANSLATION

 

The greedy masters of his clerical and secretarial staff performed the government duties while Sanatana personally remained home and discussed revealed scriptures.

 

PURPORT

 

Sanatana Gosvami was the minister in charge of the government secretariat, and his assistants-the undersecretaries and clerks-all belonged to the kayastha community. Formerly the kayasthas belonged to the clerical and secretarial staff of the government, and later if one served in such a post, he was called a kayastha. Eventually if a person could not identify himself as a brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya or sudra, he used to introduce himself as a kayastha to get a wealthy and honorable position. In Bengal it is said that if one cannot give the identity of his caste, he calls himself a kayastha. On the whole, the kayastha community is a mixture of all castes, and it especially includes those engaged in clerical or secretarial work. Materially such people are always busy occupying responsible government posts.

When Sanatana Gosvami was relaxing and feeling inclined to retire from government service, many kayasthas on his secretarial staff were very eager to occupy his post. In this regard, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura states that when Sanatana Gosvami was a government minister and the kayasthas who assisted him saw that he was reluctant to continue, they became very expert in their duties. Sanatana Gosvami was a brahmana belonging to the Sarasvata brahmana community. It is said that when he resigned, an underworker named Purandara Khan, who was a kayastha, occupied his post.

 

TEXT 17

 

TEXT

 

bhattacarya pandita bisa trisa lana

bhagavata vicara karena sabhate vasiya

 

SYNONYMS

 

bhattacarya pandita--learned scholars known as bhattacaryas; bisa trisa--twenty or thirty; lana--taking with him; bhagavata vicara--discussion of Srimad-Bhagavatam; karena--does; sabhate vasiya--sitting in an assembly.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Sanatana Gosvami used to discuss Srimad-Bhagavatam in an assembly of twenty or thirty learned brahmana scholars.

 

PURPORT

 

Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura gives the following commentary on the words bhagavata vicara. As confirmed in the Mundaka Upanisad (1.1.4,5), there are two kinds of educational systems:

 

dve vidye veditavya iti, ha sma yad brahma-vido vadanti-para caivapara ca. tatrapara rg-vedo yajur-vedah sama-vedo 'tharva-vedah siksa kalpo vyakaranam niruktam chando jyotisam iti. atha para yaya tad-aksaram adhigamyate.

 

"There are two kinds of educational systems. One deals with transcendental knowledge [para vidya] and the other with material knowledge [apara vidya]. All the Vedas-Rg Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, Atharva Veda and their corollaries known as siksa, kalpa, vyakarana, nirukta, chanda and jyotisa-belong to the inferior system of material knowledge [apara vidya]. By para vidya, one can understand the aksara, Brahman or the Absolute Truth." As far as Vedic literature is concerned, Vedanta-sutra is accepted as the para vidya. Srimad-Bhagavatam is an explanation of that para vidya. Those who aspire for liberation (mukti or moksa) and introduce themselves as vaidantika are also equal to those groups aspiring to improve religion (dharma), economic development (artha) and sense gratification (kama). Dharma, artha, kama and moksa are called catur-varga. They are all within the system of inferior material knowledge. Any literature giving information about the spiritual world, spiritual life, spiritual identity and the spirit soul is called para vidya. Srimad-Bhagavatam does not have anything to do with the materialistic way of life; it gives transcendental information to educate people in the superior system of para vidya. Sanatana Gosvami was engaged in discussing the bhagavata-vidya, which means he discussed transcendental superior knowledge. Those who are karmis, jnanis or yogis are not actually fit to discuss Srimad-Bhagavatam. Only Vaisnavas or pure devotees are fit to discuss that literature. As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam itself (12.13.18):

 

srimad-bhagavatam puranam amalam yad vaisnavanam priyam

yasmin paramahamsyam ekam amalam jnanam param giyate

yatra jnana-viraga-bhakti-sahitam naiskarmyam aviskrtam

tac chrnvan supathan vicarana-paro bhaktya vimucyen narah

 

Although Srimad-Bhagavatam is counted among the Puranas, it is called the spotless Purana. Because it does not discuss anything material, it is liked by transcendental Vaisnava devotees. The subject matter found in Srimad-Bhagavatam is meant for paramahamsas. As it is said: paramo-nirmatsaranam. A paramahamsa is one who does not live in the material world and who does not envy others. In Srimad-Bhagavatam, devotional service is discussed to arouse the living entity to the transcendental position of jnana (knowledge) and vairagya (renunciation). As stated in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.12):

 

tac chraddadhanah munayo

jnana-vairagya-yuktaya

pasyanty atmani catmanam

bhaktya sruta-grhitaya

 

"That Absolute Truth is realized by the seriously inquisitive student or sage who is well equipped with knowledge and who has become detached by rendering devotional service and hearing the Vedanta-sruti."

This is not sentiment. Knowledge and renunciation can be obtained through devotional service (bhaktya sruta-grhitaya), that is, by arousing one's dormant devotional consciousness, Krsna consciousness. When Krsna consciousness is aroused, it relieves one from fruitive activity, activity for economic improvement and material enjoyment. This relief is technically called naiskarma, and when one is relieved, he is no longer interested in working hard for sense gratification. Srimad-Bhagavatam is Srila Vyasadeva's last mature contribution, and one should read and hear it in an assembly of realized souls while engaging in devotional service. At such a time one can be liberated from all material bondage. This was the course taken by Sanatana Gosvami, who retired from government service to study Srimad-Bhagavatam with learned scholars.

 

TEXT 18

 

TEXT

 

ara dina gaudesvara, sange eka-jana

acambite gosani-sabhate kaila agamana

 

SYNONYMS

 

ara dina--one day; gaudesvara--the Nawab of Bengal; sange--with; eka-jana--one other person; acambite--suddenly; gosani-sabhate--in the assembly of Sanatana Gosvami; kaila agamana--came.

 

TRANSLATION

 

While Sanatana Gosvami was studying Srimad-Bhagavatam in the assembly of learned brahmanas, one day the Nawab of Bengal and another person suddenly appeared.

The full name of the Nawab of Bengal (Hussain Shah) was Alauddina Saiyada Husena Saha Seripha Makka, and he ruled Bengal for twenty-three years, from 1420 to 1443 Sakabda Era. Sanatana Gosvami was studying Srimad-Bhagavatam with the scholars in the year 1424.

 

TEXT 19

 

TEXT

 

patsaha dekhiya sabe sambhrame uthila

sambhrame asana diya rajare vasaila

 

SYNONYMS

 

patsaha dekhiya--seeing the Nawab; sabe--all of them; sambhrame--in great respect; uthila--stood up; sambhrame--with great respect; asana diya--giving a sitting place; rajare--the King; vasaila--made to sit.

 

TRANSLATION

 

As soon as all the brahmanas and Sanatana Gosvami saw the Nawab appear, they all stood up and respectfully gave him a sitting place to honor him.

 

PURPORT

 

Although Nawab Hussain Shah was a mleccha-yavana, he was nonetheless the governor of the country, and the learned scholars and Sanatana Gosvami offered him all the respect due a king or a governor. When a person occupies an exalted executive post, one should consider that he has acquired the grace of the Lord. In Bhagavad-gita it is said:

 

yad yad vibhutimat sattvam

srimad urjitam eva va

tat tad evavagaccha tvam

mama tejo 'msa-sambhavam

 

"Know that all beautiful, glorious and mighty creations spring from but a spark of My splendor." (Bg. 10.41)

Whenever we see something exalted, we must consider it part of the power of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. A powerful man (vibhutimat sattvam) is one who has obtained the grace of the Lord or has derived some power from Him. In Bhagavad-gita (7.10) Krsna says, tejas tejasvinam aham: "I am the power of the powerful." The learned brahmana scholars showed respect to Nawab Hussain Shah because he represented a fraction of Krsna's power.

 

TEXT 20

 

TEXT

 

raja kahe,----tomara sthane vaidya pathailun

vaidya kahe,----vyadhi nahi, sustha ye dekhilun

 

SYNONYMS

 

raja kahe--the Nawab said; tomara sthane--to your place; vaidya--a physician; pathailun--I sent; vaidya kahe--the physician said; vyadhi nahi--there is no disease; su-stha--completely healthy; ye--that; dekhilun--I have seen.

 

TRANSLATION

 

The Nawab said, "I sent my physician to you, and he has reported that you are not diseased. As far as he could see, you are completely healthy.

 

TEXT 21

 

TEXT

 

amara ye kichu karya, saba toma lana

karya chadi' rahila tumi gharete vasiya

 

SYNONYMS

 

amara--my; ye kichu--whatever; karya--business; saba--everything; toma--you; lana--with; karya chadi'--giving up your duties; rahila--remained; tumi--you; gharete--at home; vasiya--sitting.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"I am depending on you to carry out so many of my activities, but you have given up your governmental duties to sit here at home.

 

TEXT 22

 

TEXT

 

mora yata karya-kama, saba kaila nasa

ki tomara hrdaye ache, kaha mora pasa

 

SYNONYMS

 

mora--my; yata--all; karya-kama--occupational duties; saba--everything; kaila nasa--you have spoiled; ki--what; tomara--your; hrdaye--within the heart; ache--there is; kaha--kindly tell; mora pasa--to me.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"You have spoiled all my activities. What is your intention? Please tell me frankly."

 

TEXT 23

 

TEXT

 

sanatana kahe,----nahe ama haite kama

ara eka-jana diya kara samadhana

 

SYNONYMS

 

sanatana kahe--Sanatana Gosvami replied; nahe--not; ama--me; haite--from; kama--execution of the duty; ara eka-jana--someone else; diya--by means of; kara samadhana--execute the management.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sanatana Gosvami replied, "You can no longer expect any service from me. Please arrange for someone else to tend to the management."

 

TEXT 24

 

TEXT

 

tabe kruddha hana raja kahe ara-bara

tomara 'bada bhai' kare dasyu-vyavahara

 

SYNONYMS

 

tabe--at that time; kruddha hana--becoming angry; raja kahe--the Nawab said; ara-bara--again; tomara bada bhai--your elder brother; kare--does; dasyu-vyavahara--the activity of a plunderer.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Becoming angry with Sanatana Gosvami, the Nawab said, "Your elder brother is acting just like a plunderer.

 

TEXT 25

 

TEXT

 

jiva-bahu mari' kaila cakla saba nasa

etha tumi kaila mora sarva karya nasa

 

SYNONYMS

 

jiva--living entities; bahu--many; mari'--killing; kaila--did; cakla--the province of Bengal; saba--all; nasa--destruction; etha--here; tumi--you; kaila--did; mora--my; sarva--all; karya--plans; nasa--destruction.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"By killing many living entities, your elder brother has destroyed all Bengal. Now here you are destroying all my plans."

 

TEXT 26

 

TEXT

 

sanatana kahe,----tumi svatantra gaudesvara

ye yei dosa kare, deha' tara phala

 

SYNONYMS

 

sanatana kahe--Sanatana Gosvami said; tumi--you; svatantra--independent; gauda-isvara--the ruler of Bengal; ye yei--whatever; dosa--faults; kare--one commits; deha'--you award; tara phala--the results of that.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sanatana Gosvami said, "You are the supreme ruler of Bengal and are completely independent. Whenever someone commits a fault, you punish him accordingly."

 

TEXT 27

 

TEXT

 

eta suni' gaudesvara uthi' ghare gela

palaiba bali' sanatanere bandhila

 

SYNONYMS

 

eta suni'--hearing this; gauda-isvara--the Nawab of Bengal; uthi'--standing up; ghare gela--went back home; palaiba--I shall run away; bali'--because of this; sanatanere bandhila--he arrested Sanatana.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Hearing this, the Nawab of Bengal stood up and returned to his home. He ordered the arrest of Sanatana Gosvami so that he would not be able to leave.

 

PURPORT

 

It is said that the relationship between the Nawab of Bengal and Sanatana Gosvami was very intimate. The Nawab used to consider Sanatana Gosvami his younger brother, and when Sanatana Gosvami showed a very strong intention to resign, the Nawab, feeling familial affection, essentially said, "I am your elder brother, but I do not look after the state management. My only business is attacking other states with my soldiers and fighting everywhere as a plunderer. Because I am a meat-eater [yavana], I am used to hunting all kinds of living beings. In this way I am destroying all kinds of living entities in Bengal. While engaged in this destructive business, I am hoping that you will tend to the administration of the state. Since I, your elder brother, am engaged in such a destructive business, you, being my younger brother, should look after the state management. If you do not, how will things continue?" This talk was based on a family relationship, and Sanatana Gosvami also replied in an intimate and joking way. Essentially he told the Nawab, "My dear brother, you are the independent ruler of Bengal. You can act in whatever way you like, and if someone commits fault, you can punish him accordingly." In other words, Sanatana Gosvami was saying that since the Nawab was accustomed to acting like a plunderer, he should go ahead and take action. Since Sanatana was not showing much enthusiasm in performing his duty, the Nawab should dismiss him from his service. The Nawab could understand the intention of Sanatana Gosvami's statement. He therefore left in an angry mood and ordered Sanatana Gosvami's arrest.

 

TEXT 28

 

TEXT

 

hena-kale gela raja udiya marite

sanatane kahe,----tumi cala mora sathe

 

SYNONYMS

 

hena-kale--at this time; gela--went; raja--the King; udiya marite--to attack the Orissa province; sanatane kahe--he said to Sanatana Gosvami; tumi cala--you come; mora sathe--along with me.

 

TRANSLATION

 

At this time, the Nawab was going to attack the province of Orissa, and he told Sanatana Gosvami, "Come along with me."

 

PURPORT

 

Hussain Shah attacked the province of Orissa in 1424 Sakabda Era. At that time he conquered the feudal princes of neighboring Orissa.

 

TEXT 29

 

TEXT

 

tenho kahe,----yabe tumi devataya duhkha dite

mora sakti nahi, tomara sange yaite

 

SYNONYMS

 

tenho kahe--Sanatana Gosvami replied; yabe--will go; tumi--you; devataya--to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; duhkha dite--to give unhappiness; mora sakti--my power; nahi--there is not; tomara sange--in company with you; yaite--to go.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sanatana Gosvami replied, "You are going to Orissa to give pain to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. For this reason I am powerless to go with you."

 

TEXT 30

 

TEXT

 

tabe tanre bandhi' rakhi' karila gamana

etha nilacala haite prabhu calila vrndavana

 

SYNONYMS

 

tabe--thereafter; tanre--him; bandhi'--arresting; rakhi'--keeping; karila gamana--he went away; etha--at this time; nilacala haite--from Jagannatha Puri; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; calila vrndavana--departed for Vrndavana.

 

TRANSLATION

 

The Nawab again arrested Sanatana Gosvami and kept him in prison. At this time, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu departed for Vrndavana from Jagannatha Puri.

 

TEXT 31

 

TEXT

 

tabe sei dui cara rupa-thani aila

'vrndavana calila prabhu'----asiya kahila

 

SYNONYMS

 

tabe--at that time; sei--those; dui--two; cara--messengers; rupa-thani--to the presence of Rupa Gosvami; aila--came back; vrndavana calila prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has departed for Vrndavana; asiya--coming; kahila--they informed.

 

TRANSLATION

 

The two persons who went to Jagannatha Puri to inquire about the Lord's departure returned and informed Rupa Gosvami that the Lord had already departed for Vrndavana.

 

TEXT 32

 

TEXT

 

suniya sri-rupa likhila sanatana-thani

'vrndavana calila sri-caitanya-gosani

 

SYNONYMS

 

suniya--hearing; sri-rupa--Sri Rupa Gosvami; likhila--wrote; sanatana-thani--to Sanatana Gosvami; vrndavana--to Vrndavana; calila--has gone; sri-caitanya-gosani--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Upon receiving this message from his two messengers, Rupa Gosvami immediately wrote a letter to Sanatana Gosvami saying that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu had departed for Vrndavana.

 

TEXT 33

 

TEXT

 

ami-dui-bhai calilana tanhare milite

tumi yaiche taiche chuti' aisa tahan haite

 

SYNONYMS

 

ami-dui-bhai--we two brothers; calilana--have gone; tanhare milite--to meet Him; tumi--you; yaiche taiche--somehow or other; chuti'--getting free; aisa--come; tahan haite--from there.

 

TRANSLATION

 

In his letter to Sanatana Gosvami, Srila Rupa Gosvami wrote, "We two brothers are starting out to go see Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. You must also somehow or other get released and come meet us."

 

PURPORT

 

The two brothers herein mentioned are Rupa Gosvami and his younger brother, Anupama Mallika. Rupa Gosvami was informing Sanatana Gosvami that he should join him and his younger brother.

 

TEXT 34

 

TEXT

 

dasa-sahasra mudra tatha ache mudi-sthane

taha diya kara sighra atma-vimocane

 

SYNONYMS

 

dasa-sahasra mudra--ten thousand coins; tatha--there; ache--there are; mudi-sthane--in the grocer's place; taha diya--with this amount; kara--get; sighra--as soon as possible; atma-vimocane--release from the internment.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Rupa Gosvami further informed Srila Sanatana Gosvami: "I have left a deposit of ten thousand coins with the grocer. Use that money to get out of prison.

 

TEXT 35

 

TEXT

 

yaiche taiche chuti' tumi aisa vrndavana'

eta likhi' dui-bhai karila gamana

 

SYNONYMS

 

yaiche taiche--somehow or other; chuti'--getting released; tumi--you; aisa--come; vrndavana--to Vrndavana; eta likhi'--writing this; dui-bhai--the two brothers, namely Rupa Gosvami and his younger brother Anupama; karila gamana--departed.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Somehow or other get yourself released and come to Vrndavana." After writing this, the two brothers [Rupa Gosvami and Anupama] went to see Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

TEXT 36

 

TEXT

 

anupama mallika, tanra nama----'sri-vallabha'

rupa-gosanira chota-bhai----parama-vaisnava

 

SYNONYMS

 

anupama mallika--Anupama Mallika; tanra nama--his name; sri-vallabha--Sri Vallabha; rupa-gosanira--of Rupa Gosvami; chota-bhai--younger brother; parama-vaisnava--great devotee.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Rupa Gosvami's younger brother was a great devotee whose actual name was Sri Vallabha, but he was given the name Anupama Mallika.

 

TEXT 37

 

TEXT

 

tanha lana rupa-gosani prayage aila

mahaprabhu tahan suni' anandita haila

 

SYNONYMS

 

tanha lana--taking him along; rupa-gosani--Sri Rupa Gosvami; pra yage--to Prayaga; aila--came; mahaprabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tahan--there; suni'--hearing; anandita haila--were very much pleased.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Rupa Gosvami and Anupama Mallika went to Prayaga, and they were very pleased to hear news that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was there.

 

TEXT 38

 

TEXT

 

prabhu caliyachena bindu-madhava-darasane

laksa laksa loka aise prabhura milane

 

SYNONYMS

 

prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; caliyachena--was going; bindu-madhava-darasane--to see Lord Bindu Madhava; laksa laksa loka--many hundreds of thousands of people; aise--came; prabhura--with Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; milane--for meeting.

 

TRANSLATION

 

At Prayaga, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu went to see the temple of Bindu Madhava, and many hundreds of thousands of people followed Him just to meet Him.

 

TEXT 39

 

TEXT

 

keha kande, keha hase, keha nace, gaya

'krsna' 'krsna' bali' keha gadagadi yaya

 

SYNONYMS

 

keha kande--some cried; keha hase--some laughed; keha nace--some danced; gaya--chanted; krsna krsna bali'--saying Krsna, Krsna; keha--some; gadagadi yaya--rolled on the ground.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Some of the people following the Lord were crying. Some were laughing, some dancing and some chanting. Indeed, some of them were rolling on the ground, exclaiming, "Krsna! Krsna!"

 

TEXT 40

 

TEXT

 

ganga-yamuna prayaga narila dubaite

prabhu dubaila krsna-premera vanyate

 

SYNONYMS

 

ganga-yamuna--the River Ganges and River Yamuna; prayaga--Prayaga; narila--were not able; dubaite--to flood; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; dubaila--flooded; krsna-premera--of ecstatic love of Krsna; vanyate--in an inundation.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Prayaga is located at the confluence of two rivers-the Ganges and the Yamuna. Although these rivers were not able to flood Prayaga with water, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu inundated the whole area with waves of ecstatic love for Krsna.

 

TEXT 41

 

TEXT

 

bhida dekhi' dui bhai rahila nirjane

prabhura avesa haila madhava-darasane

 

SYNONYMS

 

bhida dekhi'--seeing the crowd; dui bhai--the two brothers; rahila--remained; nirjane--in a secluded place; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; avesa--ecstasy; haila--there was; madhava-darasane--by seeing the Deity, Bindu Madhava.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Seeing the great crowd, the two brothers remained standing in a secluded place. They could see that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was ecstatic to see Lord Bindu Madhava.

 

TEXT 42

 

TEXT

 

premavese nace prabhu hari-dhvani kari'

urdhva bahu kari' bale----bala 'hari' 'hari'

 

SYNONYMS

 

prema-avese--in ecstatic love; nace--danced; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; hari-dhvani kari'--vibrating the holy name of Hari; urdhva--raised; bahu--the arms; kari'--making; bale--says; bala hari hari--chant Hari, Hari.

 

TRANSLATION

 

The Lord was loudly chanting the holy name of Hari. Dancing in ecstatic love and raising His arms, He asked everyone to chant "Hari! Hari!"

 

TEXT 43

 

TEXT

 

prabhura mahima dekhi' loke camatkara

prayage prabhura lila nari varnibara

 

SYNONYMS

 

prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; mahima--the greatness; dekhi'--seeing; loke--in all people; camatkara--astonishment; prayage--at Prayaga; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; lila--the pastimes; nari--I am not able; varnibara--to describe.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Everyone was astounded to see the greatness of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Indeed, I cannot properly describe the pastimes of the Lord at Prayaga.

 

TEXT 44

 

TEXT

 

daksinatya-vipra-sane ache paricaya

sei vipra nimantriya nila nijalaya

 

SYNONYMS

 

daksinatya--Deccan; vipra-sane--with a brahmana; ache--there was; paricaya--acquaintance; sei--that; vipra--brahmana; nimantriya--inviting; nila--brought; nija-alaya--to his own place.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu had made an acquaintance with a brahmana from Deccan [in South India], and that brahmana invited Him for meals and took Him to his place.

 

TEXT 45

 

TEXT

 

vipra-grhe asi' prabhu nibhrte vasila

sri-rupa-vallabha dunhe asiya milila

 

SYNONYMS

 

vipra-grhe--to the house of that brahmana; asi'--coming; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; nibhrte--in a solitary place; vasila--sat down; sri-rupa-vallabha--the two brothers Rupa Gosvami and Sri Vallabha; dunhe--both of them; asiya--coming; milila--met Him.

 

TRANSLATION

 

While Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was sitting in a solitary place in the home of that Deccan brahmana, Rupa Gosvami and Sri Vallabha [Anupama Mallika] came to meet Him.

 

TEXT 46

 

TEXT

 

dui-guccha trna dunhe dasane dhariya

prabhu dekhi' dure pade dandavat hana

 

SYNONYMS

 

dui-guccha--two bunches; trna--straw; dunhe--both of them; dasane dhariya--holding in the teeth; prabhu dekhi'--seeing the Lord; dure--in a distant place; pade--fell down; danda-vat--like rods; hana--becoming.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Seeing the Lord from a distance, the two brothers put two clumps of straw between their teeth and immediately fell down on the ground like rods, offering Him obeisances.

 

TEXT 47

 

TEXT

 

nana sloka padi' uthe, pade bara bara

prabhu dekhi' premavesa ha-ila dunhara

 

SYNONYMS

 

nana--various; sloka--verses; padi'--reciting; uthe--stood up; pade--fell down; bara bara--again and again; prabhu dekhi'--seeing the Lord; prema-avesa--ecstatic emotion; ha-ila--there was; dunhara--of both of them.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Both brothers were overwhelmed with ecstatic emotion, and reciting various Sanskrit verses, they stood up and fell down again and again.

 

TEXT 48

 

TEXT

 

sri-rupe dekhiya prabhura prasanna haila mana

'utha, utha, rupa, aisa', balila vacana

 

SYNONYMS

 

sri-rupe dekhiya--seeing Srila Rupa Gosvami; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; prasanna--very pleased; haila--was; mana--mind; utha--please stand up; utha--please stand up; rupa--My dear Rupa; aisa--come; balila--He said; vacana--the words.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was very pleased to see Srila Rupa Gosvami, and He told him, "Stand up! Stand up! My dear Rupa, come here."

 

TEXT 49

 

TEXT

 

krsnera karuna kichu na yaya varnane

visaya-kupa haite kadila toma dui-jane

 

SYNONYMS

 

krsnera--of Lord Krsna; karuna--the mercy; kichu--any; na--not; yaya--is possible; varnane--to describe; visaya-kupa haite--from the well of material enjoyment; kadila--delivered; toma--you; dui-jane--both.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu then said,"It is not possible to describe Krsna's mercy, for He has delivered you both from the well of material enjoyment.

 

TEXT 50

 

TEXT

 

na me 'bhaktas catur-vedi

mad-bhaktah svapacah priyah

tasmai deyam tato grahyam

sa ca pujyo yatha hy aham

 

SYNONYMS

 

na--not; me--My; abhaktah--devoid of pure devotional service; catuh-vedi--a scholar in the four Vedas; mat-bhaktah--My devotee; sva-pacah--even from a family of dog-eaters; priyah--very dear; tasmai--to him (a pure devotee, even though born in a very low family); deyam--should be given; tatah--from him; grahyam--should be accepted (remnants of food); sah--that person; ca--also; pujyah--worshipable; yatha--as much as; hi--certainly; aham--I.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'Even though a person is a very learned scholar of the Sanskrit Vedic literatures, he is not accepted as My devotee unless he is pure in devotional service. Even though a person is born in a family of dog-eaters, he is very dear to Me if he is a pure devotee who has no motive to enjoy fruitive activities or mental speculation. Indeed, all respects should be given to him, and whatever he offers should be accepted. Such devotees are as worshipable as I am.' "

 

PURPORT

 

This verse is included in the Hari-bhakti-vilasa (10.127) compiled by Sanatana Gosvami.

 

TEXT 51

 

TEXT

 

ei sloka padi' dunhare kaila alingana

krpate dunhara mathaya dharila carana

 

SYNONYMS

 

ei sloka--this verse; padi'--reciting; dunhare--the two brothers; kaila alingana--embraced; krpate--out of causeless mercy; dunhara--of both of them; mathaya--on the heads; dharila--placed; carana--His feet.

 

TRANSLATION

 

After reciting this verse, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu embraced both brothers, and out of His causeless mercy He placed His feet on their heads.

 

TEXT 52

 

TEXT

 

prabhu-krpa pana dunhe dui hata yudi'

dina hana stuti kare vinaya acari'

 

SYNONYMS

 

prabhu-krpa--the Lord's mercy; pana--getting; dunhe--both of them; dui--two; hata--hands; yudi'--folding; dina hana--most humbly; stuti kare--offer prayers; vinaya acari'--with submission.

 

TRANSLATION

 

After receiving the Lord's causeless mercy, the brothers folded their hands and in great humility offered the following prayers unto the Lord.

 

TEXT 53

 

TEXT

 

namo maha-vadanyaya

krsna-prema-pradaya te

krsnaya krsna-caitanya-

namne gaura-tvise namah

 

SYNONYMS

 

namah--obeisances; maha-vadanyaya--who is most munificent and charitably disposed; krsna-prema--love of Krsna; pradaya--who can give; te--unto You; krsnaya--the original Personality of Godhead; krsna-caitanya-namne--under the name Krsna Caitanya; gaura-tvise--whose complexion is the golden complexion of Srimati Radharani; namah--obeisances.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"O most munificent incarnation! You are Krsna Himself appearing as Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu. You have assumed the golden color of Srimati Radharani, and You are widely distributing pure love of Krsna. We offer our respectful obeisances unto You.

 

TEXT 54

 

TEXT

 

yo ' jnana-mattam bhuvanam dayalur

ullaghayann apy akarot pramattam

sva-prema-sampat-sudhayadbhuteham

sri-krsna-caitanyam amum prapadye

 

SYNONYMS

 

yah--that Personality of Godhead who; ajnana-mattam--maddened by ignorance or foolishly passing time in karma, jnana, yoga and Mayavada philosophy; bhuvanam--the entire three worlds; dayaluh--so merciful; ullaghayan--subduing such processes as karma, jnana and yoga; api--despite; akarot--made; pra-mattam--maddened; sva-prema-sampat-sudhaya--by the nectar of His personal devotional service, which is an invaluable treasure of bliss; adbhuta-iham--whose activities are wonderful; sri-krsna-caitanyam--unto Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; amum--that; prapadye--I surrender.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"We offer our respectful obeisances unto that merciful Supreme Personality of Godhead who has converted all three worlds, which were maddened by ignorance, and saved them from their diseased condition by making them mad with the nectar from the treasure-house of love of God. Let us take full shelter of that Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna Caitanya, whose activities are wonderful."

 

PURPORT

 

This verse is found in the Govinda-lilamrta (1.2).

 

TEXT 55

 

TEXT

 

tabe mahaprabhu tanre nikate vasaila

'sanatanera varta kaha'----tanhare puchila

 

SYNONYMS

 

tabe--thereafter; mahaprabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tanre--them; nikate--near Him; vasaila--sat down; sanatanera varta--news of Sanatana; kaha--please tell; tanhare--them; puchila--questioned.

 

TRANSLATION

 

After this, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu sat them down by His side and asked them, "What news do you have of Sanatana?"

 

TEXT 56

 

TEXT

 

rupa kahena,----tenho bandi haya raja-ghare

tumi yadi uddhara', tabe ha-ibe uddhare

 

SYNONYMS

 

rupa kahena--Rupa Gosvami said; tenho--he; bandi--arrested; haya--is; raja-ghare--in the court of the government; tumi--You; yadi--if; uddhara'--kindly rescue; tabe--then; ha-ibe--he will be; uddhare--relieved from that entanglement.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Rupa Gosvami replied, "Sanatana has now been arrested by the government of Hussain Shah. If You kindly save him, he can be liberated from that entanglement."

 

TEXT 57

 

TEXT

 

prabhu kahe,----sanatanera hanache mocana

acirat ama-saha ha-ibe milana

 

SYNONYMS

 

prabhu kahe--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said; sanatanera--of Sanatana Gosvami; hanache--there has been; mocana--release; acirat--very soon; amasaha--with Me; ha-ibe milana--there will be meeting.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu immediately replied, "Sanatana has already been released from his confinement, and he will very soon meet with Me."

 

TEXT 58

 

TEXT

 

madhyahna karite vipra prabhure kahila

rupa-gosani se-divasa tathani rahila

 

SYNONYMS

 

madhyahna karite--to accept lunch; vipra--the brahmana of Deccan; prabhure--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; kahila--requested; rupa-gosani--Rupa Gosvami; se-divasa--that day; tathani--there; rahila--remained.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was then requested by the brahmana to accept His lunch. Rupa Gosvami also remained there that day.

 

TEXT 59

 

TEXT

 

bhattacarya dui bhaiye nimantrana kaila

prabhura sesa prasada-patra dui-bhai paila

 

SYNONYMS

 

bhattacarya--Balabhadra Bhattacarya; dui bhaiye--the two brothers; nimantrana kaila--invited to take lunch; prabhura sesa prasada-patra--the remnants of the plate of food offered to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; dui-bhai paila--the two brothers obtained.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Balabhadra Bhattacarya invited the two brothers to take lunch also. The remnants of food from the plate of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu were offered to them.

 

TEXT 60

 

TEXT

 

triveni-upara prabhura vasa-ghara sthana

dui bhai vasa kaila prabhu-sannidhana

 

SYNONYMS

 

tri-veni-upara--on the bank of the confluence of the Yamuna and Ganges; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; vasa-ghara--of the residential house; sthana--the place; dui bhai--the two brothers; vasa kaila--resided; prabhu-sannidhana--near Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu selected His residence beside the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna at a place called Triveni. The two brothers-Rupa Gosvami and Sri Vallabha-selected their residence near the Lord's.

 

TEXT 61

 

TEXT

 

se-kale vallabha-bhatta rahe adaila-grame

mahaprabhu aila suni' aila tanra sthane

 

SYNONYMS

 

se-kale--at that time; vallabha-bhatta--Vallabha Bhatta; rahe--resided; adaila-grame--in the village known as Adaila; mahaprabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; aila--has come; suni'--hearing; aila--came; tanra sthane--to His place.

 

TRANSLATION

 

At that time, Sri Vallabha Bhatta was staying at Adaila-grama, and when he heard that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu had arrived, he went to His place to see Him.

 

PURPORT

 

Vallabha Bhatta was a great learned scholar of Vaisnavism. In the beginning he was very much devoted to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, but since he thought that he could not receive proper respect from Him, he later joined the Visnusvami sect and became acarya of that sect. His sect is celebrated as the Vallabhacarya-sampradaya. This sampradaya has had great influence in Vrndavana near Gokula and in Bombay. Vallabha Bhatta wrote many books, including a commentary on Srimad-Bhagavatam called Subodhini-tika, and notes on the Vedanta-sutra, in the form of an Anubhasya. He also wrote a combination of sixteen short works called Sodasa-grantha. Adaila-grama, where he was staying, was near the confluence of the Rivers Ganges and Yamuna on the other side of the Yamuna about one mile from the river. The village there is called Adeli-grama, or Adaila-grama. A temple of Lord Visnu there still belongs to the Vallabha-sampradaya.

Vallabha Bhatta was originally from a place in southern India called Trailanga. There is a railway station there called Nidadabhalu. Sixteen miles from that station is a village called Kankadabada, or Kakunrapadhu. A learned brahmana named Laksmana Diksita used to live there, and Vallabha Bhatta was his son. There are five sections of the brahmana community of Andhra Pradesh known as bella-nati, vegi-nati, muraki-nati telagu-nati and kasala-nati. Out of these five brahminical communities, Vallabhacarya took his birth in the community of bella-nati in the year 1400 Sakabda Era. According to some people, Vallabha Bhattacarya's father took sannyasa before Vallabha's birth, and he returned home to take Vallabhacarya as his son. According to the opinion of others, Vallabhacarya was born in 1400 Sakabda Era on the Ekadasi day of the dark moon in the month of Caitra, and he took his birth in a brahmana family surnamed Khambhampatibaru. According to this account, his father's name was Laksmana Bhatta Diksita, and he was born in Campakaranya. In someone else's opinion, Vallabhacarya appeared near the village named Canpa-jhara-grama, which is near a railway station named Rajima in Madhya Pradesh.

After studying for eleven years at Varanasi, Vallabhacarya returned home. On his return, he heard that his father had departed from the material world. Keeping his brother and mother at home, he went to the banks of the River Tungabhadra in a village called Vidyanagara, and it was there that he enlightened Krsnadeva, the grandson of King Bukkaraja. After that, he traveled throughout India thrice on trips lasting six years. Thus he passed eighteen years and became victorious in his discussions of revealed scripture. When he was thirty years old, he married Mahalaksmi, who belonged to the same brahmana community. Near Govardhana Hill he established a Deity in the valley. Finally he came to Adaila, which is on the other side of Prayaga.

Vallabhacarya had two sons, Gopinatha and Viththalesvara, and in his old age he accepted the renounced order. In 1452 Sakabda Era, he passed away from the material world at Varanasi. His book known as Sodasa-grantha and his commentaries on Vedanta-sutra (Anubhasya) and Srimad-Bhagavatam (Subodhini) are very famous. He has written many other books besides.

 

TEXT 62

 

TEXT

 

tenho dandavat kaila, prabhu kaila alingana

dui jane krsna-katha haila kata-ksana

 

SYNONYMS

 

tenho--he; dandavat--obeisances; kaila--made; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; kaila--did; alingana--embracing; dui jane--between the two of them; krsna-katha--topics about Lord Krsna; haila--there were; kata-ksana--for some time.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Vallabha Bhattacarya offered Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu his obeisances, and the Lord embraced him. After that, they discussed topics about Krsna for some time.

 

TEXT 63

 

TEXT

 

krsna-kathaya prabhura maha-prema uthalila

bhattera sankoce prabhu samvarana kaila

 

SYNONYMS

 

krsna-kathaya--in the discussion on Krsna; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; maha-prema--great love; uthalila--arose; bhattera--of Bhattacarya; sankoce--due to shyness; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; samvarana kaila--restrained Himself.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu felt great ecstatic love when they began discussing Krsna, but the Lord checked His feelings because He felt shy before Vallabha Bhatta.

 

TEXT 64

 

TEXT

 

antare gara-gara prema, nahe samvarana

dekhi' camatkara haila vallabha-bhattera mana

 

SYNONYMS

 

antare--inside; gara-gara--raged; prema--ecstatic love; nahe--there was not; samvarana--checking; dekhi'--detecting; camatkara--astonishment; haila--there was; vallabha-bhattera mana--on the mind of Vallabha Bhatta.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Although the Lord restrained Himself externally, ecstatic love raged within. There was no checking that. Vallabha Bhatta was astonished to detect this.

 

TEXT 65

 

TEXT

 

tabe bhatta mahaprabhure nimantrana kaila

mahaprabhu dui-bhai tanhare milaila

 

SYNONYMS

 

tabe--then; bhatta--Vallabha Bhatta; mahaprabhure--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; nimantrana kaila--invited; mahaprabhu--Sri Caitanya

 

TRANSLATION

 

Thereafter, Vallabha Bhatta invited Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu for lunch, and the Lord introduced the brothers Rupa and Vallabha to him.

 

TEXT 66

 

TEXT

 

dui-bhai dura haite bhumite padiya

bhatte dandavat kaila ati dina hana

 

SYNONYMS

 

dui-bhai--the two brothers; dura haite--from a distance; bhumite--on the ground; padiya--falling flat; bhatte--to Vallabha Bhatta; dandavat kaila--offered obeisances; ati dina hana--being very humble.

 

TRANSLATION

 

From a distance, the brothers Rupa Gosvami and Sri Vallabha fell on the ground and offered obeisances to Vallabha Bhatta with great humility.

 

TEXT 67

 

TEXT

 

bhatta milibare yaya, dunhe palaya dure

'asprsya pamara muni, na chuniha more'

 

SYNONYMS

 

bhatta--Vallabha Bhatta; milibare--to meet; yaya--goes; dunhe--the two brothers; palaya--ran away; dure--to a distant place; asprsya--untouchable; pamara--most fallen; muni--I; na chuniha--do not touch; more--me.

 

TRANSLATION

 

When Vallabha Bhattacarya walked toward them, they ran away to a more distant place. Rupa Gosvami said, "I am untouchable and most sinful. Please do not touch me."

 

TEXT 68

 

TEXT

 

bhattera vismaya haila, prabhura harsa mana

bhattere kahila prabhu tanra vivarana

 

SYNONYMS

 

bhattera--of Vallabha Bhattacarya; vismaya haila--there was surprise; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; harsa--very happy; mana--the mind; bhattere kahila--said to Vallabha Bhattacarya; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tanra vivarana--description of Rupa Gosvami.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Vallabha Bhattacarya was very surprised at this. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, however, was very pleased, and He therefore spoke to him this description of Rupa Gosvami.

 

TEXT 69

 

TEXT

 

'inho na sparsiha, inho jati ati-hina!

vaidika, yajnika tumi kulina pravina!'

 

SYNONYMS

 

inho--him; na sparsiha--do not touch; inho--he; jati--caste; ati-hina--very low; vaidika--a follower of Vedic principles; yajnika--a performer of many sacrifices; tumi--you; kulina--aristocratic brahmana; pravina--an experienced person.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, "Don't touch him, for he belongs to a very low caste. You are a follower of Vedic principles and are a well experienced performer of many sacrifices. You also belong to the aristocracy."

 

PURPORT

 

Generally brahmanas are puffed up with false prestige because they belong to the aristocracy and perform many Vedic sacrifices. In South India especially, this fastidious position is most prominent. At any rate, this was the case five hundred years ago. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu actually started a revolution against this brahminical system by inaugurating the chanting of the Hare Krsna mantra. By this chanting, one can be delivered regardless of caste, creed, color or social position. Whoever chants the Hare Krsna maha-mantra is immediately purified due to the transcendental position of devotional service. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is here hinting to Vallabha Bhattacarya that an exalted brahmana who makes sacrifices and follows Vedic principles should not neglect a person who is engaged in devotional service by chanting the holy name of the Lord.

Actually Rupa Gosvami did not belong to a lower caste. He was from a highly aristocratic brahmana family, but due to his association with the Mohammedan Nawab, he was considered fallen and excommunicated from brahmana society. However, due to his advanced devotional service, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu accepted him as a gosvami. Vallabha Bhattacarya knew all this. One who is a devotee is above caste and creed, yet Vallabha Bhattacarya felt himself prestigious.

The present head of the Vallabha Bhattacarya sampradaya of Bombay is named Diksita Maharaja. He is very friendly to our movement, and whenever we meet him, this learned brahmana scholar highly praises the activities of the Hare Krsna movement. He is a life member of our Society, and although he is a learned scholar in the brahminical caste tradition, he accepts our Society and considers its members bona fide devotees of Lord Visnu.

 

TEXT 70

 

TEXT

 

dunhara mukhe nirantara krsna-nama suni'

bhatta kahe, prabhura kichu ingita-bhangi jani'

 

SYNONYMS

 

dunhara mukhe--in the mouths of both Rupa Gosvami and his brother Vallabha; nirantara--continuously; krsna-nama suni'--hearing the chanting of the holy name of Krsna; bhatta kahe--Vallabha Bhattacarya said; prabhura--of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; kichu--some; ingita--indications; bhangi--hints; jani'--understanding.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Hearing the holy name constantly vibrated by the two brothers, Vallabha Bhattacarya could understand the hints of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

TEXT 71

 

TEXT

 

'dunhara mukhe krsna-nama kariche nartana

ei-dui 'adhama' nahe, haya 'sarvottama'

 

SYNONYMS

 

dunhara mukhe--in the mouths of both; krsna-nama--the holy name of Lord Krsna; kariche--is doing; nartana--dancing; ei-dui--both of them; adhama nahe--not fallen; haya--are; sarva-uttama--the most exalted.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Vallabha Bhattacarya admitted, "Since these two are constantly chanting the holy name of Krsna, how can they be untouchable? On the contrary, they are most exalted."

 

PURPORT

 

Vallabha Bhattacarya's admission of the brothers' exalted position should serve as a lesson to one who is falsely proud of his position as a brahmana. Sometimes so-called brahmanas do not recognize our European and American disciples as devotees or brahmanas, and some brahmanas are so proud that they do not allow them to enter temples. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu herein gives a great lesson. Although Vallabha Bhattacarya was a great authority on brahmanism and a learned scholar, he admitted that those who chant the Lord's holy name are bona fide brahmanas and Vaisnavas and are therefore exalted.

 

TEXT 72

 

TEXT

 

aho bata sva-paco 'to gariyan

yaj-jihvagre vartate nama tubhyam

tepus tapas te juhuvuh sasnur arya

brahmanucur nama grnanti ye te

 

SYNONYMS

 

aho bata--how wonderful it is; sva-pacah--dog-eaters; atah--than the initiated brahmana; gariyan--more glorious; yat--of whom; jihva-agre--on the tongue; vartate--remains; nama--the holy name; tubhyam--of You, my Lord; tepuh--have performed; tapah--austerity; te--they; juhuvuh--have performed sacrifices; sasnuh--have bathed in all holy places; aryah--really belonging to the Aryan race; brahma--all the Vedas; anucuh--have studied; nama--the holy name; grnanti--chant; ye--who; te--they.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Vallabha Bhattacarya then recited the following verse: " 'My dear Lord, one who always keeps Your holy name on his tongue becomes greater than an initiated brahmana. Although he may be born in a family of dog-eaters and may therefore, by material calculation, be the lowest among men, he is still glorious. This is the wonderful effect of chanting the holy name of the Lord. It is therefore concluded that one who chants the holy name of the Lord should be understood to have performed all kinds of austerities and great sacrifices mentioned in the Vedas. He has already taken his bath in all the holy places of pilgrimage. He has studied all the Vedas, and he is actually an Aryan.' "

 

PURPORT

 

This verse is quoted from Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.33.7).

 

TEXT 73

 

TEXT

 

suni' mahaprabhu tanre bahu prasamsila

premavista hana sloka padite lagila

 

SYNONYMS

 

suni'--hearing; mahaprabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tanre--him; bahu--very much; prasamsila--praised; prema-avista hana--becoming ecstatic in love of Godhead; sloka--verses; padite lagila--began to recite.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was very pleased to hear Vallabha Bhatta quoting from sastra about the position of a devotee. The Lord praised him personally, and, feeling ecstatic love of Godhead, began to quote many verses from sastra.

 

TEXT 74

 

TEXT

 

sucih sad-bhakti-diptagni-

dagdha-durjati-kalmasah

svapako 'pi budhaih slagyo

na vedajno 'pi nastikah

 

SYNONYMS

 

sucih--a brahmana purified internally and externally; sat-bhakti--of devotional service without motives; dipta-agni--by the blazing fire; dagdha--burnt to ashes; durjati--such as birth in a low family; kalmasah--whose sinful reactions; sva-pakah api--even though born in a family of dog-eaters; budhaih--by learned scholars; slagyah--recognized; na--not; veda-jnah api--even though completely conversant in Vedic knowledge; nastikah--an atheist.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, " 'A person who has the pure characteristics of a brahmana due to devotional service, which is like a blazing fire burning to ashes all the sinful reactions of past lives, is certainly saved from the consequences of sinful acts, such as taking birth in a lower family. Even though he may be born in a family of dog-eaters, he is recognized by learned scholars. However, although a person may be a learned scholar in Vedic knowledge, he is not recognized if he is an atheist.

 

PURPORT

 

This verse and the next are quoted from the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya (3.11,12), a transcendental literature extracted from the Puranas.

 

TEXT 75

 

TEXT

 

bhagavad-bhakti-hinasya

jatih sastram japas tapah

apranasyeva dehasya

mandanam loka-ranjanam

 

SYNONYMS

 

bhagavat-bhakti-hinasya--of a person devoid of devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; jatih--birth in a high caste; sastram--knowledge in revealed scriptures; japah--pronunciation of mantras; tapah--austerities and penances; apranasya--which is dead; iva--like; dehasya--of a body; mandanam--decoration; loka--to the whims of people in general; ranjanam--simply pleasing.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'For a person devoid of devotional service, birth in a great family or nation, knowledge of revealed scripture, performance of austerities and penance, and chanting of Vedic mantras are all like ornaments on a dead body. Such ornaments simply serve the concocted pleasures of the general populace.'

 

TEXT 76

 

TEXT

 

prabhura premavesa, ara prabhava bhakti-sara

saundaryadi dekhi' bhattera haila camatkara

 

SYNONYMS

 

prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; prema-avesa--ecstasy in love of Godhead; ara--and; prabhava--the influence; bhakti-sara--the essence of devotional service; saundarya-adi--personal beauty and other qualities; dekhi'--seeing; bhattera--of Vallabha Bhattacarya; haila--there was; camatkara--astonishment.

 

TRANSLATION

 

When he saw the Lord's ecstatic love, Vallabha Bhattacarya was certainly very astonished. He was also astonished by the Lord's knowledge of the essence of devotional service, as well as by His personal beauty and influence.

 

TEXT 77

 

TEXT

 

sagane prabhure bhatta naukate cadana

bhiksa dite nija-ghare calila lana

 

SYNONYMS

 

sa-gane--with His associates; prabhure--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; bhatta--Vallabha Bhattacarya; naukate--a boat; cadana--putting aboard; bhiksa dite--to offer lunch; nija-ghare--to his own place; calila--departed; lana--taking.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Vallabha Bhattacarya then put Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and His associates aboard a boat and took them to his own place to offer them lunch.

 

TEXT 78

 

TEXT

 

yamunara jala dekhi' cikkana syamala

premavese mahaprabhu ha-ila vihvala

 

SYNONYMS

 

yamunara--of the River Yamuna; jala--the water; dekhi'--seeing; cikkana--glossy; syamala--blackish; prema-avese--in ecstatic love; mahaprabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; ha-ila--became; vihvala--bewildered.

 

TRANSLATION

 

While crossing the River Yamuna, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu saw the glossy black water and was immediately bewildered with ecstatic love.

 

TEXT 79

 

TEXT

 

hunkara kari' yamunara jale dila jhanpa

prabhu dekhi' sabara mane haila bhaya-kanpa

 

SYNONYMS

 

hunkara kari'--making a loud sound; yamunara jale--in the water of the River Yamuna; dila--gave; jhanpa--a plunge; prabhu dekhi'--seeing Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sabara--of everyone; mane--in the mind; haila--there was; bhaya-kanpa--fear and trembling.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Indeed, as soon as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu saw the River Yamuna, He immediately made a great sound and jumped into the water. Everyone was filled with fear and trembling to see this.

 

TEXT 80

 

TEXT

 

aste-vyaste sabe dhari' prabhure uthaila

naukara upare prabhu nacite lagila

 

SYNONYMS

 

aste-vyaste--with great haste; sabe--all of them; dhari'--catching; prabhure--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; uthaila--raised; naukara--of the boat; upare--on top; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; nacite lagila--began to dance.

 

TRANSLATION

 

They all hastily grabbed Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and pulled Him out of the water. Once on the boat's platform, the Lord began to dance.

 

TEXT 81

 

TEXT

 

mahaprabhura bhare nauka kare talamala

dubite lagila nauka, jhalake bhare jala

 

SYNONYMS

 

mahaprabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; bhare--because of the weight; nauka--the boat; kare--does; talamala--tilting; dubite--to sink; lagila--began; nauka--the boat; jhalake--in gushes; bhare--fills; jala--water.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Due to the Lord's heavy weight, the boat began to tilt. It began filling up with water and was on the verge of sinking.

 

TEXT 82

 

TEXT

 

yadyapi bhattera age prabhura dhairya haila mana

durvara udbhata prema nahe samvarana

 

SYNONYMS

 

yadyapi--although; bhattera--of Vallabhacarya; age--in front; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; dhairya--patient; haila--was; mana--the mind; durvara--difficult to stop; udbhata--wonderful; prema--ecstatic love; nahe--there is not; samvarana--checking.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu tried to restrain Himself as far as possible before Vallabhacarya, but although He tried to keep calm, His ecstatic love could not be checked.

 

TEXT 83

 

TEXT

 

desa-patra dekhi' mahaprabhu dhairya ha-ila

adailera ghate nauka asi' uttarila

 

SYNONYMS

 

desa-patra dekhi'--seeing the circumstances; mahaprabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; dhairya ha-ila--became calm; adailera ghate--at the shore of the village Adaila; nauka--the boat; asi'--coming; uttarila--landed.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Seeing the circumstances, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu finally became calm so that the boat was able to reach the shore of Adaila and land there.

 

TEXT 84

 

TEXT

 

bhaye bhatta sange rahe, madhyahna karana

nija-grhe anila prabhure sangete lana

 

SYNONYMS

 

bhaye--with fear; bhatta--Vallabha Bhattacarya; sange--in Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's association; rahe--remains; madhyahna karana--after arranging for His bath; nija-grhe--to his own home; anila--brought; prabhure--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sangete--in company; lana--taking.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Fearing for the Lord's welfare, Vallabha Bhattacarya stayed in His association. After arranging for the Lord's bath, he took Him to his own house.

 

TEXT 85

 

TEXT

 

anandita hana bhatta dila divyasana

apane karila prabhura pada-praksalana

 

SYNONYMS

 

anandita hana--becoming pleased; bhatta--Vallabha Bhattacarya; dila--gave; divya-asana--a nice sitting place; apane--personally; karila--did; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; pada-praksalana--washing of the feet.

 

TRANSLATION

 

When Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu arrived at his home, Vallabha Bhattacarya, being greatly pleased, offered the Lord a nice sitting place and personally washed His feet.

 

TEXT 86

 

TEXT

 

savamse sei jala mastake dharila

nutana kaupina-bahirvasa paraila

 

SYNONYMS

 

sa-vamse--with all the family members; sei--that; jala--water; mastake--on the head; dharila--sprinkled; nutana--fresh; kaupina--underwear; bahirvasa--external covering; paraila--put on.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Vallabha Bhattacarya and his whole family then sprinkled that water over their heads. They then offered the Lord new underwear and outer garments.

 

TEXT 87

 

TEXT

 

gandha-puspa-dhupa-dipe maha-puja kaila

bhattacarye manya kari' paka karaila

 

SYNONYMS

 

gandha--scents; puspa--flowers; dhupa--incense; dipe--by lamps; maha-puja kaila--he worshiped the Lord with great pomp; bhattacarye--to Balabhadra Bhattacarya; manya kari'--offering respect; paka karaila--engaging in cooking.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Vallabhacarya worshiped the Lord with great pomp, offering scents, incense, flowers and lamps, and with great respect he induced Balabhadra Bhatta [the Lord's cook] to cook.

 

TEXT 88

 

TEXT

 

bhiksa karaila prabhure sasneha yatane

rupa-gosani dui-bhaiye karaila bhojane

 

SYNONYMS

 

bhiksa karaila--made take His lunch; prabhure--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sasneha--with affection; yatane--with great care; rupa-gosani--Srila Rupa Gosvami; dui-bhaiye--the two brothers; karaila bhojane--made eat.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Thus Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was offered lunch with great care and affection. The brothers Rupa Gosvami and Sri Vallabha were also offered food.

 

TEXT 89

 

TEXT

 

bhattacarya sri-rupe deoyaila 'avasesa'

tabe sei prasada krsnadasa paila sesa

 

SYNONYMS

 

bhattacarya--Vallabha Bhattacarya; sri-rupe--to Srila Rupa Gosvami; deoyaila--offered; avasesa--the remnants; tabe--thereafter; sei--those; prasada--remnants of food; krsnadasa--Krsnadasa; paila--got; sesa--the balance.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Vallabha Bhattacarya first offered the remnants of the Lord's food to Srila Rupa Gosvami and then to Krsnadasa.

 

TEXT 90

 

TEXT

 

mukha-vasa diya prabhure karaila sayana

apane bhatta karena prabhura pada-samvahana

 

SYNONYMS

 

mukha-vasa--spices; diya--offering; prabhure--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; karaila--made to do; sayana--resting; apane--personally; bhatta--Srila Vallabha Bhatta; karena--does; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; pada-samvahana--massaging the leg.

 

TRANSLATION

 

The Lord was then given spices to purify His mouth. Afterwards He was made to rest, and Vallabha Bhattacarya personally massaged His legs.

 

TEXT 91

 

TEXT

 

prabhu pathaila tanre karite bhojane

bhojana kari' aila tenho prabhura carane

 

SYNONYMS

 

prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; pathaila--sent; tanre--him (Vallabha Bhattacarya); karite bhojane--to take his lunch; bhojana kari'--after taking lunch; aila--came; tenho--he; prabhura carane--to the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

TRANSLATION

 

While Vallabha Bhattacarya was massaging Him, the Lord asked him to go take prasada. After taking prasada, he returned to the lotus feet of the Lord.

 

TEXT 92

 

TEXT

 

hena-kale aila raghupati upadhyaya

tiruhita pandita, bada vaisnava, mahasaya

 

SYNONYMS

 

hena-kale--at this time; aila--arrived; raghupati upadhyaya--a brahmana named Raghupati Upadhyaya; tiruhita--belonging to the Tiruhita state; pandita--a very learned scholar; bada--great; vaisnava--devotee; mahasaya--respectable gentleman.

 

TRANSLATION

 

At that time there arrived Raghupati Upadhyaya, who belonged to the Tiruhita district. He was a very learned scholar, a great devotee and a respectable gentleman.

Tiruhita, or Tirhutiya, is a combination of four districts in Behar: Sarana, Camparana, Majahphara-pura and Dvarabhanga. The people of this state are called Tirutiya.

 

TEXT 93

 

TEXT

 

asi' tenho kaila prabhura carana vandana

'krsne mati rahu' bali' prabhura vacana

 

SYNONYMS

 

asi'--coming; tenho--he; kaila--did; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; carana vandana--worshiping the lotus feet; krsne mati rahu--just remain always Krsna conscious; bali'--saying; prabhura vacana--the blessings of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Raghupati Upadhyaya first offered his respects to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and the Lord gave him His blessings, saying, "Always stay in Krsna consciousness."

 

TEXT 94

 

TEXT

 

suni' anandita haila upadhyayera mana

prabhu tanre kahila,----'kaha krsnera varnana'

 

SYNONYMS

 

suni'--hearing; anandita--very pleased; haila--became; upadhyayera mana--the mind of Upadhyaya; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tanre--to him; kahila--spoke; kaha krsnera varnana--just try to describe Krsna.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Raghupati Upadhyaya was very pleased to hear the Lord's blessings. The Lord then asked him to describe Krsna.

 

TEXT 95

 

TEXT

 

nija-krta krsna-lila-sloka padila

suni' mahaprabhura maha premavesa haila

 

SYNONYMS

 

nija-krta--personally composed; krsna-lila--on pastimes of Krsna; sloka--verses; padila--recited; suni'--hearing; mahaprabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; maha--great; prema-avesa--ecstatic love; haila--there was.

 

TRANSLATION

 

When Raghupati Upadhyaya was requested to describe Krsna, he began to recite some verses he had personally composed about Krsna's pastimes. Hearing those verses, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was overwhelmed with ecstatic love.

 

TEXT 96

 

TEXT

 

srutim apare smrtim itare

bharatam anye bhajantu bhava-bhitah

aham iha nandam vande

yasyalinde param brahma

 

SYNONYMS

 

srutim--Vedic literature; apare--someone; smrtim--corollary to the Vedic literature; itare--others; bharatam--Mahabharata; anye--still others; bhajantu--let them worship; bhava-bhitah--those who are afraid of material existence; aham--I; iha--here; nandam--Maharaja Nanda; vande--worship; yasya--whose; alinde--in the courtyard; param brahma--the Supreme Brahman, Absolute Truth.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Raghupati Upadhyaya recited: "Those who are afraid of material existence worship Vedic literature. Some worship smrti, the corollaries to Vedic literature, and others worship the Mahabharata. As far as I am concerned, I worship Maharaja Nanda, the father of Krsna, in whose courtyard the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Absolute Truth, is playing."

 

PURPORT

 

This verse recited by Raghupati Upadhyaya was later included in Sri Rupa Gosvami's Padyavali (126).

 

TEXT 97

 

TEXT

 

'age kaha'----prabhu-vakye upadhyaya kahila

raghupati upadhyaya namaskara kaila

 

SYNONYMS

 

age kaha--please speak further; prabhu-vakye--on the request of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; upadhyaya--Raghupati Upadhyaya; kahila--said; raghupati upadhyaya--Raghupati Upadhyaya; namaskara kaila--offered Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu obeisances.

 

TRANSLATION

 

When Raghupati Upadhyaya was requested by the Lord to recite more, he immediately offered his respects to the Lord and granted His request.

 

TEXT 98

 

TEXT

 

kam prati kathayitum ise

samprati ko va pratitim ayatu

go-pati-tanaya-kunje

gopa-vadhuti-vitam brahma

 

SYNONYMS

 

kam prati--unto whom; kathayitum--to speak; ise--am I able; samprati--now; kah--who; va--or; pratitim--belief; ayatu--would do; go-pati--of the sun-god; tanaya--of the daughter (the Yamuna); kunje--in the bushes on the bank; gopa-vadhuti--of the cowherd girls; vitam--the hunter; brahma--the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"To whom can I speak who will believe me when I say that Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is hunting the gopis in the bushes by the banks of the River Yamuna? In this way the Lord demonstrates His pastimes."

 

PURPORT

 

This verse was also later included in padyavali (98).

 

TEXT 99

 

TEXT

 

prabhu kahena,----kaha, tenho pade krsna-lila

premavese prabhura deha-mana ayuyaila

 

SYNONYMS

 

prabhu kahena--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said; kaha--please go on speaking; tenho--he; pade--recites; krsna-lila--the pastimes of Lord Krsna; prema-avese--in great ecstasy of love; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; deha-mana--body and mind; ayuyaila--became slackened.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu requested Raghupati Upadhyaya to continue speaking about the pastimes of Sri Krsna. Thus the Lord was absorbed in ecstatic love, and His mind and body slackened.

 

PURPORT

 

Our minds and bodies are always engaged in material activities. When they are activated on the spiritual platform, they slacken on the material platform.

 

TEXT 100

 

TEXT

 

prema dekhi' upadhyayera haila camatkara

'manusya nahe, inho----krsna'----karila nirdhara

 

SYNONYMS

 

prema dekhi'--seeing His ecstatic love; upadhyayera--of Raghupati Upadhyaya; haila--there was; camatkara--wonder; manusya nahe--not a human being; inho--He; krsna--Lord Krsna Himself; karila nirdhara--made assessment.

 

TRANSLATION

 

When Raghupati Upadhyaya saw Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's ecstatic symptoms, he decided that the Lord was not a human being but Krsna Himself.

 

TEXT 101

 

TEXT

 

prabhu kahe,----upadhyaya, srestha mana' kaya?

'syamam eva param rupam'----kahe upadhyaya

 

SYNONYMS

 

prabhu kahe--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu inquired; upadhyaya--My dear Upadhyaya; srestha--the supermost; mana'--you consider; kaya--what; syamam--Syamasundara, Krsna; eva--certainly; param rupam--the supreme form; kahe--replied; upadhyaya--Raghupati Upadhyaya.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu asked Raghupati Upadhyaya, "According to your decision, who is the foremost being?" Raghupati Upadhyaya replied,"Lord Syamasundara is the supreme form."

 

TEXT 102

 

TEXT

 

syama-rupera vasa-sthana srestha mana' kaya?

'puri madhu-puri vara'----kahe upadhyaya

 

SYNONYMS

 

syama-rupera--of the supreme form, Syamasundara; vasa-sthana--residence; srestha--the supreme; mana'--you accept; kaya--which; puri--the city; madhu-puri--Mathura; vara--best; kahe--said; upadhyaya--Raghupati Upadhyaya.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Of all Krsna's abodes, which do you think is the best?" Raghupati Upadhyaya said,"Madhu-puri, or Mathura-dhama, is certainly the best."

 

PURPORT

 

Lord Krsna has many forms, as stated in the Brahma-samhita (5.33): advaitam acyutam anadim ananta-rupam. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu asked Raghupati Upadhyaya which form was the best of Lord Krsna's millions of forms, and he immediately replied that the supreme form was the Syamasundara form. In that form, Krsna stands curved in three places and holds His flute. The Syamasundara form is also described in the Brahma-samhita (5.38):

 

premanjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena

santah sadaiva hrdayesu vilokayanti

yam syamasundaram acintya-guna-svarupam

govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami

 

"I worship the primeval Lord, Govinda, who is always seen by the devotee whose eyes are anointed with the pulp of love. He is seen in His eternal form of Syamasundara situated within the heart of the devotee."

Those who are filled with ecstatic love for Krsna always see the form of Syamasundara within their hearts. Raghupati Upadhyaya confirms that the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, has many incarnations-Narayana, Nrsimha, Varaha and others-but Krsna is distinguished as the supermost. According to Srimad-Bhagavatam: krsnas tu bhagavan svayam. "Krsna is the original Personality of Godhead." Krsna means Syamasundara, who plays His flute in Vrndavana. Of all forms, this form is the best of all. Krsna lives sometimes in Mathura and sometimes in Dvaraka, but Mathura is considered the better place. This is also confirmed by Rupa Gosvami in his Upadesamrta (9): vaikunthaj janito vara madhu-puri. "Madhu-puri, or Mathura, is far superior to the Vaikunthalokas in the spiritual world."

 

TEXT 103

 

TEXT

 

balya, pauganda, kaisore, srestha mana' kaya?

'vayah kaisorakam dhyeyam'----kahe upadhyaya

 

SYNONYMS

 

balya--childhood; pauganda--the boyhood age before youth; kaisore--the beginning of youth; srestha--best; mana'--you think; kaya--which; vayah--the age; kaisorakam--kaisora or fresh youth; dhyeyam--most worshipable; kahe--said; upadhyaya--Raghupati Upadhyaya.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu asked, "Of the three ages of Krsna known as childhood, boyhood and fresh youth, which do you consider best?" Raghupati Upadhyaya replied, "Fresh youth is the best age."

 

TEXT 104

 

TEXT

 

rasa-gana-madhye tumi srestha mana' kaya?

'adya eva paro rasah'----kahe upadhyaya

 

SYNONYMS

 

rasa-gana-madhye--among all the mellows; tumi--you; srestha--as supreme; mana'--accept; kaya--which one; adyah--conjugal love; eva--certainly; parah rasah--the best of all mellows; kahe--replied; upadhyaya--Raghupati Upadhyaya.

 

TRANSLATION

 

When Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu asked, "Among all the mellows, which do you consider best?" Raghupati Upadhyaya replied, "The mellow of conjugal love is supermost."

 

TEXT 105

 

TEXT

 

prabhu kahe,----bhala tattva sikhaila more

eta bali' sloka pade gadgada-svare

 

SYNONYMS

 

prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; kahe--said; bhala--good; tattva--conclusions; sikhaila more--you have taught Me; eta bali'--saying this; sloka pade--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu recited the full verse; gadgada-svare--in a faltering voice.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu then said, "You have certainly given first-class conclusions." After saying this, He began to recite the full verse with a faltering voice.

 

TEXT 106

 

TEXT

 

syamam eva param rupam

puri madhu-puri vara

vayah kaisorakam dhyeyam

adya eva paro rasah

 

SYNONYMS

 

syamam--the form of Syamasundara; eva--certainly; param--supreme; rupam--form; puri--the place; madhu-puri--Mathura; vara--best; vayah--the age; kaisorakam--fresh youth; dhyeyam--always to be meditated on; adyah--the original transcendental mellow, or conjugal love; eva--certainly; parah--the supreme; rasah--mellow.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'The form of Syamasundara is the supreme form, the city of Mathura is the supreme abode, Lord Krsna's fresh youth should always be meditated upon, and the mellow of conjugal love is the supreme mellow.' "

 

PURPORT

 

This verse is found in Padyavali (82).

 

TEXT 107

 

TEXT

 

premavese prabhu tanre kaila alingana

prema matta hana tenho karena nartana

 

SYNONYMS

 

prema-avese--in ecstatic love; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tanre--him; kaila--did; alingana--embracing; prema matta hana--being overwhelmed by ecstatic love; tenho--he; karena nartana--began to dance.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu then embraced Raghupati Upadhyaya in ecstatic love. Raghupati Upadhyaya also was overwhelmed by love, and he began to dance.

 

TEXT 108

 

TEXT

 

dekhi' vallabha-bhatta mane camatkara haila

dui putra ani' prabhura carane padila

 

SYNONYMS

 

dekhi'--seeing; vallabha-bhatta--of Vallabha Bhattacarya; mane--in the mind; camatkara haila--there was astonishment; dui putra ani'--bringing his two sons; prabhura carane padila--made them lie at the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Vallabha Bhattacarya was struck with wonder to see Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Raghupati Upadhyaya dance. He even brought forward his two sons and made them fall down at the Lord's lotus feet.

 

PURPORT

 

The two sons of Vallabhacarya were Gopinatha and Viththalesvara. When Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu visited Prayaga in the year 1434 or 1435 Sakabda Era, Viththalesvara was not yet born. In this regard, one should see Madhya-lila 18.47.

 

TEXT 109

 

TEXT

 

prabhu dekhibare gramera saba-loka aila

prabhu-darasane sabe 'krsna-bhakta' ha-ila

 

SYNONYMS

 

prabhu dekhibare--to see Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; gramera--of the village; saba-loka--all the people; aila--came; prabhu-darasane--simply by seeing Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sabe--all of them; krsna-bhakta ha-ila--became devotees of Lord Krsna.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Upon hearing that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu had arrived, all the villagers went to see Him. Simply by seeing Him, they all became devotees of Krsna.

 

TEXT 110

 

TEXT

 

brahmana-sakala karena prabhura nimantrana

vallabha-bhatta tan-sabare karena nivarana

 

SYNONYMS

 

brahmana-sakala--all the brahmanas of that village; karena--make; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; nimantrana--invitations; vallabha-bhatta--Vallabha Bhattacarya; tan-sabare--all of them; karena--does; nivarana--forbidding.

 

TRANSLATION

 

All the brahmanas of the village were anxious to extend invitations to the Lord, but Vallabha Bhattacarya forbade them to do so.

 

TEXT 111

 

TEXT

 

'premonmade pade gosani madhya-yamunate

prayage calaiba, ihan na diba rahite

 

SYNONYMS

 

prema-unmade--in the madness of ecstatic love; pade--fell down; gosani--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; madhya-yamunate--in the River Yamuna; prayage calaiba--I shall again take Him to Prayaga; ihan--here; na--not; diba--I shall allow Him; rahite--to stay.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Vallabha Bhatta then decided not to keep Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu at Adaila because the Lord had jumped into the River Yamuna in ecstatic love. Therefore he decided to bring Him to Prayaga.

 

TEXT 112

 

TEXT

 

yanra iccha, prayage yana karibe nimantrana'

eta bali' prabhu lana karila gamana

 

SYNONYMS

 

yanra--of whom; iccha--there is a desire; prayage yana--going to Prayaga; karibe--may do; nimantrana--invitations; eta bali'--saying this; prabhu lana--with Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; karila gamana--he departed for Prayaga.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Vallabha Bhatta said, "If anyone likes, he can go to Prayaga and extend invitations to the Lord." In this way he took the Lord with him and departed for Prayaga.

 

TEXT 113

 

TEXT

 

ganga-pathe mahaprabhure naukate vasana

prayage aila bhatta gosanire lana

 

SYNONYMS

 

ganga-pathe--on the Ganges; mahaprabhure--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; naukate vasana--making to sit down on the boat; prayage aila--went to Prayaga; bhatta--Vallabha Bhatta; gosanire lana--with Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Vallabha Bhattacarya avoided the River Yamuna. Putting the Lord on a boat in the River Ganges, he went with Him to Prayaga.

 

TEXT 114

 

TEXT

 

loka-bhida-bhaye prabhu 'dasasvamedhe' yana

rupa-gosanire siksa kara'na sakti sancariya

 

SYNONYMS

 

loka-bhida-bhaye--from fear of the great crowd of people; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; dasasvamedhe--to Dasasvamedha-ghata; yana--going; rupa-gosanire--Rupa Gosvami; siksa kara'na--teaches; sakti sancariya--endowing him with potency.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Due to the great crowds in Prayaga, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu went to a place called Dasasvamedha-ghata. It was there that the Lord instructed Sri Rupa Gosvami and empowered him in the philosophy of devotional service.

 

PURPORT

 

Parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate. The Supreme Lord has multi-potencies, which the Lord bestows on His fortunate devotees. The Lord has a special potency by which He spreads the Krsna consciousness movement. This is also explained in Caitanya-caritamrta (Antya 7.11). Krsna-sakti vina nahe tara pravartana: "One cannot spread the holy name of Krsna without being specifically empowered by Lord Krsna." A devotee who receives this power from the Lord must be considered very fortunate. The Krsna consciousness movement is spreading to enlighten people about their real position, their original relationship with Krsna. One requires Krsna's special power in order to be able to do this. People forget their relationship with Krsna and work under the spell of maya life after life, transmigrating from one body to another. This is the process of material existence. The Supreme Lord Sri Krsna personally descends to teach people that their position in the material world is a mistaken one. The Lord again comes as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu to induce people to take to Krsna consciousness. The Lord also empowers a special devotee to teach people their constitutional position.

 

TEXT 115

 

TEXT

 

krsnatattva-bhaktitattva-rasatattva-pranta

saba sikhaila prabhu bhagavata-siddhanta

 

SYNONYMS

 

krsna-tattva--of the truth about Lord Krsna; bhakti-tattva--of the truth about devotional service; rasa-tattva--of the truth about transcendental mellows; pranta--the ultimate limit; saba--all; sikhaila--taught; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; bhagavata-siddhanta--the conclusions of Srimad-Bhagavatam.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu taught Srila Rupa Gosvami the ultimate limit of the truth about Lord Krsna, the truth about devotional service and the truth about transcendental mellows, consummating in conjugal love between Radha and Krsna. Finally He told Rupa Gosvami about the ultimate conclusions of Srimad-Bhagavatam.

 

TEXT 116

 

TEXT

 

ramananda-pase yata siddhanta sunila

rupe krpa kari' taha saba sancarila

 

SYNONYMS

 

ramananda-pase--from Ramananda Raya; yata--all; siddhanta--the ultimate conclusions; sunila--he heard; rupe--unto Sri Rupa Gosvami; krpa kari'--showing His causeless mercy; taha saba--all those; sancarila--infused.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu taught Rupa Gosvami all the conclusions He had heard from Ramananda Raya and duly empowered him so that he could understand them.

 

TEXT 117

 

TEXT

 

sri-rupa-hrdaye prabhu sakti sancarila

sarva-tattva-nirupane 'pravina' karila

 

SYNONYMS

 

sri-rupa-hrdaye--in the heart of Srila Rupa Gosvami; prabhu--Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sakti sancarila--infused spiritual strength; sarva-tattva--all conclusive truths; nirupane--in ascertaining; pravina karila--made him fully experienced.

 

TRANSLATION

 

By entering the heart of Rupa Gosvami, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu empowered him to ascertain properly the conclusions of all truths. He made him an experienced devotee whose decisions correctly agreed with the verdicts of the disciplic succession. Thus Sri Rupa Gosvami was personally empowered by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

PURPORT

 

The principles of devotional service are only apparently under the jurisdiction of material activity. To be rightly guided, one must be personally guided by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. This was the case with Srila Rupa Gosvami, Sanatana Gosvami and other acaryas.

 

TEXT 118

 

TEXT

 

sivananda-senera putra 'kavi-karnapura'

'rupera milana' sva-granthe likhiyachena pracura

 

SYNONYMS

 

sivananda-senera--of Sivananda Sena; putra--the son; kavi-karnapura--Kavi-karnapura; rupera milana--meeting Rupa Gosvami; sva-granthe--in his own book; likhiyachena pracura--has written profusely.

 

TRANSLATION

 

In his book Caitanya-candrodaya, Kavi-karnapura, the son of Sivananda Sena, has elaborately described the meeting between Sri Rupa Gosvami and Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

TEXT 119

 

TEXT

 

kalena vrndavana-keli-varta

lupteti tam khyapayitum visisya

krpamrtenabhisiseca devas

tatraiva rupam ca sanatanam ca

 

SYNONYMS

 

kalena--in the course of time; vrndavana-keli-varta--topics concerning the transcendental mellows of the pastimes of Lord Krsna in Vrndavana; lupta--almost lost; iti--thus; tam--all those; khyapayitum--to enunciate; visisya--making specific; krpa-amrtena--with the nectar of mercy; abhisiseca--sprinkled; devah--the Lord; tatra--there; eva--indeed; rupam--Srila Rupa Gosvami; ca--and; sanatanam--Sanatana Gosvami; ca--as well as.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"In the course of time, the transcendental news of Krsna's pastimes in Vrndavana was almost lost. To enunciate explicitly those transcendental pastimes, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, at Prayaga, empowered Srila Rupa Gosvami and Sanatana Gosvami with the nectar of His mercy to carry out this work in Vrndavana.

 

PURPORT

 

This verse and the following two verses are from Act Nine (38,29,30) of Caitanya-candrodaya by Sri Kavi-karnapura.

 

TEXT 120

 

TEXT

 

yah prag eva priya-guna-ganair gadha-baddho 'pi mukto

gehadhyasad rasa iva paro murta evapy amurtah

premalapair drdhatara-parisvanga-rangaih prayage

tam sri-rupam samam anupamenanujagraha devah

 

SYNONYMS

 

yah--who; prak eva--previously; priya-guna-ganaih--by the desirable transcendental qualities of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; gadha--deeply; baddhah--attached; api--although; muktah--liberated; geha-adhyasat--from the bondage of family life; rasah--transcendental mellows; iva--like; parah--transcendental; murtah--personal form; eva--certainly; api--although; amurtah--without having a material form; prema-alapaih--by discussions of transcendental love of the Supreme; drdhatara--firm; parisvanga--of embracing; rangaih--with great pleasure; prayage--at Prayaga; tam--to him; sri-rupam--Rupa Gosvami; samam--with; anupamena--Anupama; anujagraha--showed mercy; devah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"From the very beginning, Srila Rupa Gosvami was deeply attracted by the transcendental qualities of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Thus he was permanently relieved from family life. Srila Rupa Gosvami and his younger brother, Vallabha, were blessed by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Although the Lord was transcendentally situated in His transcendental eternal form, at Prayaga He told Rupa Gosvami about transcendental ecstatic love of Krsna. The Lord then embraced him very fondly and bestowed all His mercy upon him.

 

TEXT 121

 

TEXT

 

priya-svarupe dayita-svarupe

prema-svarupe sahajabhirupe

nijanurupe prabhur eka-rupe

tatana rupe svavilasa-rupe

 

SYNONYMS

 

priya-svarupe--unto the person whose dear friend was Srila Svarupa Damodara Gosvami; dayita-svarupe--who was very dear to Him (Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu); prema-svarupe--unto the replica of His personal ecstatic love; sahaja-abhirupe--who was naturally very beautiful; nija-anurupe--who exactly followed the principles of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; prabhuh--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; eka-rupe--to the one; tatana--explained; rupe--unto Rupa Gosvami; sva-vilasa-rupe--who describes the pastimes of Lord Krsna.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Indeed, Srila Rupa Gosvami, whose dear friend was Svarupa Damodara, was the exact replica of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, and he was very, very dear to the Lord. Being the embodiment of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's ecstatic love, Rupa Gosvami was naturally very beautiful. He very carefully followed the principles enunciated by the Lord, and he was a competent person to explain properly the pastimes of Lord Krsna. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu expanded His mercy to Srila Rupa Gosvami just so he could render service by writing transcendental literatures."

 

TEXT 122

 

TEXT

 

ei-mata karnapura likhe sthane-sthane

prabhu krpa kaila yaiche rupa-sanatane

 

SYNONYMS

 

ei-mata--in this way; karna-pura--the poet known as Kavi-karnapura; likhe--writes; sthane-sthane--in various places; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; krpa kaila--showed His mercy; yaiche--how; rupa-sanatane--to Srila Rupa Gosvami and Srila Sanatana Gosvami.

 

TRANSLATION

 

The characteristics of Srila Rupa Gosvami have thus been described in various places by the poet Kavi-karnapura. An account has also been given of how Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu bestowed His causeless mercy upon Srila Rupa Gosvami and Srila Sanatana Gosvami.

 

TEXT 123

 

TEXT

 

mahaprabhura yata bada bada bhakta matra

rupa-sanatana----sabara krpa-gaurava-patra

 

SYNONYMS

 

mahaprabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; yata--all; bada bada--great, great; bhakta--devotees; matra--up to; rupa-sanatana--Srila Rupa Gosvami and Srila Sanatana Gosvami; sabara--of everyone; krpa--of the mercy; gaurava--and honor; patra--objects.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Srila Rupa Gosvami and Sanatana Gosvami were the objects of love and honor for all the great stalwart devotees of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

TEXT 124

 

TEXT

 

keha yadi dese yaya dekhi' vrndavana

tanre prasna karena prabhura parisada-gana

 

SYNONYMS

 

keha--someone; yadi--if; dese--to his country; yaya--goes; dekhi'--after seeing; vrndavana--Vrndavana; tanre--unto that person; prasna karena--put questions; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; parisada-gana--personal associates.

 

TRANSLATION

 

If someone returned to his country after seeing Vrndavana, the associates of the Lord would ask him questions.

 

TEXT 125

 

TEXT

 

"kaha,----tahan kaiche rahe rupa-sanatana?

kaiche rahe, kaiche vairagya, kaiche bhojana?

 

SYNONYMS

 

kaha--please describe; tahan--there; kaiche--how; rahe--remain; rupa--Rupa Gosvami; sanatana--Sanatana Gosvami; kaiche rahe--how do they live; kaiche vairagya--how do they practice renunciation; kaiche bhojana--how do they eat.

 

TRANSLATION

 

They would ask those returning from Vrndavana, "How are Rupa and Sanatana doing in Vrndavana? What are their activities in the renounced order? How do they manage to eat?" These were the questions asked.

 

TEXT 126

 

TEXT

 

kaiche asta-prahara karena sri-krsna-bhajana?"

tabe prasamsiya kahe sei bhakta-gana

 

SYNONYMS

 

kaiche--how; asta-prahara--twenty-four hours; karena--do; sri-krsna-bhajana--worshiping of Lord Krsna; tabe--at that time; prasamsiya--praising; kahe--described; sei bhakta-gana--those devotees.

 

TRANSLATION

 

The Lord's associates would also ask, "How is it that Rupa and Sanatana are engaging in devotional service twenty-four hours daily?" At that time the person who had returned from Vrndavana would praise Srila Rupa and Sanatana Gosvami.

 

TEXT 127

 

TEXT

 

"aniketa dunhe, vane yata vrksa-gana

eka eka vrksera tale eka eka ratri sayana

 

SYNONYMS

 

aniketa--without a residence; dunhe--both of them; vane--in the forest; yata vrksa-gana--as many trees as there are; eka eka vrksera--of one tree after another; tale--at the base; eka eka ratri--one night after another; sayana--lying down to sleep.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The brothers actually have no fixed residence. They reside beneath trees-one night under one tree and the next night under another.

 

TEXT 128

 

TEXT

 

'vipra-grhe' sthula-bhiksa, kahan madhu-kari

suska ruti-cana civaya bhoga parihari'

 

SYNONYMS

 

vipra-grhe--in the house of a brahmana; sthula-bhiksa--full meals; kahan--sometimes; madhu-kari--begging little by little like honeybees; suska--dry; ruti--bread; cana--chick-peas; civaya--chew; bhoga parihari'--giving up all kinds of material enjoyment.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Srila Rupa and Sanatana Gosvami beg a little food from the houses of brahmanas. Giving up all kinds of material enjoyment, they only take some dry bread and fried chick-peas.

 

TEXT 129

 

TEXT

 

karonya-matra hate, kantha chinda, bahirvasa

krsna-katha, krsna-nama, nartana-ullasa

 

SYNONYMS

 

karonya--the waterpot of a sannyasi; matra--only; hate--in the hand; kantha chinda--torn quilt; bahirvasa--outer garments; krsna-katha--discussion of Krsna's pastimes; krsna-nama--chanting the holy name of Lord Krsna; nartana-ullasa--dancing in jubilation.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"They carry only waterpots, and they wear torn quilts. They always chant the holy names of Krsna and discuss His pastimes. In great jubilation, they also dance.

 

TEXT 130

 

TEXT

 

asta-prahara krsna-bhajana, cari danda sayane

nama-sankirtane seha nahe kona dine

 

SYNONYMS

 

asta-prahara--twenty-four hours; krsna-bhajana--worshiping Lord Krsna; cari danda--four dandas (one danda equals twenty-four minutes); sayane--for sleeping; nama-sankirtane--because of chanting the holy name of the Lord; seha--that much time; nahe--not; kona dine--some days.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"They engage almost twenty-four hours daily in rendering service to the Lord. They usually sleep only an hour and a half, and some days, when they continuously chant the Lord's holy name, they do not sleep at all.

 

TEXT 131

 

TEXT

 

kabhu bhakti-rasa-sastra karaye likhana

caitanya-katha sune, kare caitanya-cintana"

 

SYNONYMS

 

kabhu--sometimes; bhakti-rasa-sastra--transcendental literature about the mellows of devotional service; karaye likhana--write; caitanya-katha--talks about the pastimes of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sune--they hear; kare--do; caitanya-cintana--thinking of Lord Caitanya.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Sometimes they write transcendental literatures about devotional service, and sometimes they hear about Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and spend their time thinking about the Lord."

 

TEXT 132

 

TEXT

 

ei-katha suni' mahantera maha-sukha haya

caitanyera krpa yanhe, tanhe ki vismaya?

 

SYNONYMS

 

ei-katha suni'--hearing this news; mahantera--of all the devotees; maha-sukha--great pleasure; haya--was; caitanyera--of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; krpa--mercy; yanhe--on whom; tanhe--in him; ki--what; vismaya--wonderful.

 

TRANSLATION

 

When the personal associates of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu would hear of the activities of Rupa and Sanatana Gosvamis, they would say, "What is wonderful for a person who has been granted the Lord's mercy?"

 

PURPORT

 

Srila Rupa Gosvami and Sanatana Gosvami had no fixed residence. They stayed beneath a tree for one day only and wrote huge volumes of transcendental literature. They not only wrote books but chanted, danced, discussed Krsna and remembered Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's pastimes. Thus they executed devotional service.

In Vrndavana there are prakrta-sahajiyas who say that writing books or even touching books is taboo. For them, devotional service means being relieved from these activities. Whenever they are asked to hear a recitation of Vedic literature, they refuse, saying, "What business do we have reading or hearing transcendental literatures? They are meant for neophytes." They pose themselves to be too elevated to exert energy for reading, writing and hearing. However, pure devotees under the guidance of Srila Rupa Gosvami reject this sahajiya philosophy. It is certainly not good to write literature for money or reputation, but to write books and publish them for the enlightenment of the general populace is real service to the Lord. That was Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati's opinion, and he specifically told his disciples to write books. He actually preferred to publish books rather than establish temples. Temple construction is meant for the general populace and neophyte devotees, but the business of advanced and empowered devotees is to write books, publish them and distribute them widely. According to Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, distributing literature is like playing on a great mrdanga. Consequently we always request members of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness to publish as many books as possible and distribute them widely throughout the world. By thus following in the footsteps of Srila Rupa Gosvami, one can become a rupanuga devotee.

 

TEXT 133

 

TEXT

 

caitanyera krpa rupa likhiyachena apane

rasamrta-sindhu-granthera mangalacarane

 

SYNONYMS

 

caitanyera--of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; krpa--the mercy; rupa--Srila Rupa Gosvami; likhiyachena--has written; apane--personally; rasamrta-sindhu-granthera--of the book known as Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu; mangala-acarane--in the auspicious introduction.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Srila Rupa Gosvami has personally spoken about the mercy of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in his auspicious introduction to his book Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu [1.1.2].

 

TEXT 134

 

TEXT

 

hrdi yasya preranaya

pravartito 'ham varaka-rupo 'pi

tasya hareh pada-kamalam

vande caitanya-devasya

 

SYNONYMS

 

hrdi--within the heart; yasya--of whom (the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who gives His pure devotees intelligence with which to spread the Krsna consciousness movement); preranaya--by the inspiration; pravartitah--engaged; aham--I; varaka--insignificant and low; rupah--Rupa Gosvami; api--although; tasya--of Him; hareh--who is Lord Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pada-kamalam--to the lotus feet; vande--let me offer my prayers; caitanya-devasya--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Although I am the lowest of men and have no knowledge, the inspiration to write transcendental literatures about devotional service has been mercifully bestowed upon me. Therefore I am offering my obeisances at the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has given me the chance to write these books."

 

TEXT 135

 

TEXT

 

ei-mata dasa-dina prayage rahiya

sri-rupe siksa dila sakti sancariya

 

SYNONYMS

 

ei-mata--in this way; dasa-dina--for ten days; prayage--at Prayaga; rahiya--staying; sri-rupe--to Srila Rupa Gosvami; siksa--instructions; dila--imparted; sakti sancariya--bestowing upon him the necessary potency.

 

TRANSLATION

 

For ten days Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu stayed at Prayaga and instructed Rupa Gosvami, empowering him with the necessary potency.

 

PURPORT

 

This is a confirmation of the statement krsna-sakti vina nahe tara pravartana. Unless one is specifically empowered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he cannot spread the Krsna consciousness movement. An empowered devotee sees and feels himself to be the lowest of men, for he knows that whatever he does is due to the inspiration given by the Lord in the heart. This is also confirmed in Bhagavad-gita:

 

tesam satata-yuktanam

bhajatam priti-purvakam

dadami buddhi-yogam tam

yena mam upayanti te

 

"To those who are constantly devoted and worship Me with love, I give the understanding by which they can come to Me." (Bg. 10.10)

To be empowered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one has to qualify himself. This means that one must engage twenty-four hours daily in the loving devotional service of the Lord. The material position of a devotee doesn't matter because devotional service is not dependent on material considerations. In his earlier life, Srila Rupa Gosvami was a government officer and a grhastha. He was not even a brahmacari or sannyasi. He associated with mlecchas and yavanas, but because he was always eager to serve, he was a qualified recipient for the Lord's mercy. A sincere devotee can therefore be empowered by the Lord regardless of his situation. In the preceding verse from the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, Srila Rupa Gosvami has described how he was personally empowered by the Lord. He further states in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.187):

 

iha yasya harer dasye

karmana manasa gira

nikhilasv apy avasthasu

jivan-muktah sa ucyate

 

"A person acting in the service of Krsna with his body, mind and words is a liberated person even in the material world, although he may be engaged in many so-called material activities."

To keep oneself free from material contamination and attain the Lord's favor, one must be sincerely anxious to render service to the Lord. This is the only qualification necessary. As soon as one is favored by the mercy of the spiritual master and the Lord, one is immediately given all the power necessary to write books and propagate the Krsna consciousness movement without being hampered by material considerations.

 

TEXT 136

 

TEXT

 

prabhu kahe,----suna, rupa, bhakti-rasera laksana

sutra-rupe kahi, vistara na yaya varnana

 

SYNONYMS

 

prabhu kahe--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu spoke; suna--please listen; rupa--My dear Rupa; bhakti-rasera--of the transcendental mellows in devotional service; laksana--the symptoms; sutra-rupe--in the form of a synopsis; kahi--I shall explain; vistara--the whole breadth; na--not; yaya--is possible; varnana--description.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, "My dear Rupa, please listen to Me. It is not possible to describe devotional service completely; therefore I am just trying to give you a synopsis of the symptoms of devotional service.

 

TEXT 137

 

TEXT

 

parapara-sunya gabhira bhakti-rasa-sindhu

tomaya cakhaite tara kahi eka 'bindu'

 

SYNONYMS

 

para-apara--the length and breadth; sunya--without; gabhira--deep; bhakti-rasa--of the mellows in devotional service; sindhu--the ocean; tomaya--to you; cakhaite--to give a taste; tara--of this ocean; kahi--I shall speak; eka--one; bindu--drop.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The ocean of the transcendental mellow of devotional service is so big that no one can estimate its length and breadth. However, just to help you taste it, I am describing but one drop.

 

TEXT 138

 

TEXT

 

eita brahmanda bhari' ananta jiva-gana

caurasi-laksa yonite karaye bhramana

 

SYNONYMS

 

ei-ta--in this way; brahmanda--the whole universe; bhari'--filling; ananta--unlimited; jiva-gana--living entities; caurasi-laksa--8,400,000; yonite--in species of life; karaye--do; bhramana--wandering.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"In this universe there are limitless living entities in 8,400,000 species, and all are wandering within this universe.

 

PURPORT

 

This is a challenge to so-called scientists and philosophers who presume that there are living entities on this planet only. So-called scientists are going to the moon, and they say that there is no life there. This does not tally with Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's version. He says that everywhere within the universe there are unlimited numbers of living entities in 8,400,000 different forms. In Bhagavad-gita (2.24) we find that the living entities are sarva-gatah, which means that they can go anywhere. This indicates that there are living entities everywhere. They exist on land, in water, in air, in fire and in ether. Thus there are living entities in all types of material elements. Since the entire material universe is composed of five elements-earth, water, fire, air and ether-why should there be living entities on one planet and not others? Such a foolish version can never be accepted by Vedic students. From the Vedic literatures we understand that there are living entities on each and every planet, regardless of whether the planet is composed of earth, water, fire or ether. These living entities may not have the same forms that are found on this planet earth, but they have different forms composed of different elements. Even on this earth we can see that the forms of land animals are different from the forms of aquatics. According to the circumstance, living conditions differ, but undoubtedly there are living entities everywhere. Why should we deny the existence of living entities on this or that planet? Those who have claimed to have gone to the moon have not gone there, or else their imperfect vision cannot actually perceive the particular type of living entities there.

Living entities are described as ananta, or unlimited; nonetheless, they are said to belong to 8,400,000 species. As stated in the Visnu Purana:

 

jalaja nava-laksani

sthavara laksa-vimsati

krmayo rudra-sankhyakah

paksinam dasa-laksanam

trimsal-laksani pasavah

catur-laksani manusah

 

"There are 900,000 species living in the water. There are also 2,000,000 non-moving living entities (sthavara) such as trees and plants. There are also 1,100,000 species of insects and reptiles, and there are 1,000,000 species of birds. As far as quadrupeds are concerned there are 3,000,000 varieties, and there are 400,000 human species." Some of these species may exist on one planet and not on another, but in any case within all the planets of the universe-and even in the sun-there are living entities. This is the verdict of Vedic literatures. As Bhagavad-gita (2.20) confirms:

 

na jayate mriyate va kadacin

nayam bhutva bhavita va na bhuyah

ajo nityah sasvato 'yam purano

na hanyate hanyamane sarire

 

"For the soul there is never birth nor death. Nor, having once been, does he ever cease to be. He is unborn, eternal, ever-existing, undying and primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain."

Since the living entities are never annihilated, they simply transmigrate from one life form to another. Thus there is an evolution of forms according to the degree of developed consciousness. One experiences different degrees of consciousness in different forms. A dog's consciousness is different from a man's. Even within a species we find that a father's consciousness is different from his son's and that a child's consciousness is different from a youth's. Just as we find different forms, we find different states of consciousness. When we see different states of consciousness, we may take it for granted that the bodies are different. In other words, different types of bodies depend on different states of consciousness. This is also confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (8.6): yam yam vapi smaran bhavam. One's consciousness at the time of death determines a type of body of the living entity. This is the process of transmigration of the soul. A variety of bodies is already there; we change from one body to another in terms of our consciousness.

 

TEXT 139

 

TEXT

 

kesagra-sateka-bhaga punah satamsa kari

tara sama suksma jivera 'svarupa' vicari

 

SYNONYMS

 

kesa-agra--from the tip of a hair; sata-eka--one hundred; bhaga--divisions; punah--again; sata-amsa--one hundred divisions; kari--making; tara sama--equal to that; suksma--very fine; jivera--of the living entity; sva-rupa--the actual form; vicari--I consider.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The length and breadth of the living entity is described as one tenthousandth part of the tip of a hair. This is the original subtle nature of the living entity.

 

TEXT 140

 

TEXT

 

kesagra-sata-bhagasya

satamsa-sadrsatmakah

jivah suksma-svarupo 'yam

sankhyatito hi cit-kanah

 

SYNONYMS

 

kesa-agra--of the tip of a hair; sata-bhagasya--of one hundredth; sata-amsa--a hundredth part; sadrsa--equal to; atmakah--whose nature; jivah--the living entity; suksma--very fine; sva-rupah--identification; ayam--this; sankhya-atitah--numbering beyond calculation; hi--certainly; cit-kanah--spiritual particle.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'If we divide the tip of a hair into a hundred parts and then take one of these parts and divide it again into a hundred parts, that very fine division is the size of but one of the numberless living entities. They are all cit-kana, particles of spirit, not matter.'

 

PURPORT

 

This is quoted from the commentary on the portion of Srimad-Bhagavatam wherein the Vedas personified offer their obeisances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (15.7). Mamaivamso jiva-loke jiva-bhutah sanatanah: "The living entities in this conditioned world are My eternal, fragmental parts."

Lord Sri Krsna personally identifies Himself with the minute living entities. Lord Krsna is the supreme spirit, the Supersoul, and the living entities are His very minute parts and parcels. Of course, we cannot divide the tip of a hair into such fine particles, but spiritually such small particles can exist. Spiritual strength is so powerful that a mere atomic portion of spirit can be the biggest brain in the material world. The same spiritual spark is within an ant and within the body of Brahma. According to his karma, material activities, the spiritual spark attains a certain type of body. Material activities are carried out in goodness, passion and ignorance or a combination of these. According to the mixture of the modes of material nature, the living entity is awarded a particular type of body. This is the conclusion.

 

TEXT 141

 

TEXT

 

balagra-sata-bhagasya

satadha kalpitasya ca

bhago jivah sa vijneya

iti caha para srutih

 

SYNONYMS

 

bala-agra--the tip of a hair; sata-bhagasya--of one hundredth; sata-dha--into one hundred parts; kalpitasya--divided; ca--and; bhagah--minute portion; jivah--the living entity; sah--that; vijneyah--to be understood; iti--thus; ca--and; aha--have said; para--chief; srutih--Vedic mantras.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'If we divide the tip of a hair into one hundred parts and then take one part and divide this into another one hundred parts, that ten-thousandth part is the dimension of the living entity. This is the verdict of the chief Vedic mantras.'

 

PURPORT

 

The first three padas of this verse from the Pancadasi Citradipa (81) are taken from the Svetasvatara Upanisad (5.9).

 

TEXT 142

 

TEXT

 

suksmanam apy aham jivah

 

SYNONYMS

 

suksmanam--of the minute particles; api--certainly; aham--I; jivah--the living entity.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'Among minute particles, I am the living entity.'

 

PURPORT

 

The living entity is one with and different from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As spirit soul, the living entity is one in quality with the Supreme Lord; however, the Supreme Lord is bigger than the biggest, and the living entity is the smallest of the small. This quote is the third pada of a verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.16.11).

 

TEXT 143

 

TEXT

 

aparimita dhruvas tanu-bhrto yadi sarva-gatas

tarhi na sasyateti niyamo dhruva netaratha

ajani ca yan-mayam tad avimucya niyantr bhavet

samam anujanatam yad amatam mata-dustataya

 

SYNONYMS

 

aparimitah--unlimited in number; dhruvah--eternals; tanu-bhrtah--who have accepted material bodies; yadi--if; sarva-gatah--all-pervading; tarhi--then; na--not; sasyata--controllable; iti--thus; niyamah--regulation; dhruva--O Supreme Truth; na--not; itaratha--in another manner; ajani--have been born; ca--and; yat-mayam--consisting of which; tat--that; avimucya--without giving up; niyantr--controller; bhavet--may become; samam--equal in all respects; anu-janatam--of those who follow this philosophical calculation; yat--that; amatam--not conclusive; mata-dustataya--by faulty calculations.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'O Lord, although the living entities who have accepted material bodies are spiritual and unlimited in number, if they were all-pervading there would be no question of their being under Your control. If they are accepted, however, as particles of the eternally existing spiritual entity-as part of You, who are the supreme spirit whole-we must conclude that they are always under Your control. If the living entities are simply satisfied with being identical with You as spiritual particles, then they will be happy being controllers of so many things. The conclusion that the living entities and the Supreme Personality of Godhead are one and the same is a faulty conclusion. It is not a fact.'

 

PURPORT

 

This verse, which is also from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.87.30), was spoken by the personified Vedas.

 

TEXT 144

 

TEXT

 

tara madhye 'sthavara', jangama'----dui bheda

jangame tiryak-jala-sthalacara-vibheda

 

SYNONYMS

 

tara madhye--among the living entities who are conditioned within the material world; sthavara--immovable; jangama--movable; dui bheda--two divisions; jangame--among the living entities who can move; tiryak--the living entities who can move in the air (the birds); jala--or living entities who can move within the water; sthala-cara--living entities who can move on land; vibheda--three divisions.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The unlimited living entities can be divided into two divisions-those that can move and those that cannot move. Among living entities that can move, there are birds, aquatics and animals.

 

PURPORT

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is giving clear instructions on how the living entities live under different conditions. There are trees, plants and stones that cannot move, but still they must be considered living entities, or spiritual sparks. The soul is present in bodies like those of trees, plants and stones. They are all living entities. Among moving living entities such as birds, aquatics and animals, the same spiritual spark is there. As stated herein, there are living entities that can fly, swim and walk. We must also conclude that there are living entities that can move within fire and ether. Living entities have different material bodies composed of earth, water, air, fire and ether. The words tara madhye mean "within this universe." The entire material universe is composed of five material elements. It is not true that living entities reside only within this planet and not within others. Such a conclusion is completely contradictory to the Vedas. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (2.24):

 

acchedyo 'yam adahyo 'yam

akledyo 'sosya eva ca

nityah sarva-gatah sthanur

acalo 'yam sanatanah

 

"This individual soul is unbreakable and insoluble, and can be neither burned nor dried. He is everlasting, all-pervading, unchangeable, immovable and eternally the same."

The soul has nothing to do with the material elements. Any material element can be cut to pieces, especially earth. As far as the living entity is concerned, however, it can neither be burned nor cut to pieces. It can therefore live within fire. We can conclude that there are also living entities within the sun. Why should living entities be denied this planet or that planet? According to the Vedas, the living entities can live anywhere and everywhere-on land, in water, in air and in fire. Whatever the condition, the living entity is unchangeable (sthanu). From the statements of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Bhagavad-gita, we are to conclude that living entities are everywhere throughout the universes. They are distributed as trees, plants, aquatics, birds, human beings and so on.

 

TEXT 145

 

TEXT

 

tara madhye manusya-jati ati alpatara

tara madhye mleccha, pulinda, bauddha, sabara

 

SYNONYMS

 

tara madhye--among all such living entities; manusya-jati--entities born as human beings; ati--very; alpatara--small in quantity; tara madhye--among the small quantity of human beings; mleccha--uncivilized men who cannot follow the Vedic principles; pulinda--unregulated; bauddha--followers of Buddhist philosophy; sabara--the lowest of men (the hunter class).

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Although the living entities known as human beings are very small in quantity, that division may be still further subdivided, for there are many uncultured human beings like mlecchas, pulindas, bauddhas and sabaras.

 

TEXT 146

 

TEXT

 

veda-nistha-madhye ardheka veda 'mukhe' mane

veda-nisiddha papa kare, dharma nahi gane

 

SYNONYMS

 

veda-nistha-madhye--among persons who are followers of the Vedas; ardheka--almost half; veda--Vedic scriptures; mukhe--in the mouth; mane--accept; veda-nisiddha--forbidden in the Vedas; papa--sins; kare--perform; dharma--religious principles; nahi--not; gane--count.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Among human beings, those who are followers of the Vedic principles are considered civilized. Among these, almost half simply give lip service while committing all kinds of sinful activities against these principles. Such people do not care for the regulative principles.

 

PURPORT

 

The word veda means "knowledge." Supreme knowledge consists of understanding the Supreme Personality of Godhead and our relationship with Him and acting according to that relationship. Action in accordance with the Vedic principles is called religion. Religion means following the orders of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Vedic principles are the injunctions given by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Aryans are civilized human beings who have been following the Vedic principles since time immemorial. No one can trace out the history of the Vedic principles set forth so that man might understand the Supreme Being. Literature or knowledge that seeks the Supreme Being can be accepted as a bona fide religious system, but there are many different types of religious systems according to the place, the disciples and the people's capacity to understand.

The highest type of religious system is described in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.6) thus: sa vai pumsam paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhoksaje. The highest form of religion is that by which one becomes fully conscious of the existence of God, His form, name, qualities, pastimes, abode and all-pervasive features. When everything is completely known, that is the perfection of Vedic knowledge. The fulfillment of Vedic knowledge is systematic knowledge of the characteristics of God. This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gita (15.15): vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyah. The aim of Vedic knowledge is to understand God. Those who are actually following Vedic knowledge and searching after God cannot commit sinful activities against the Supreme Lord's order. However, in this Age of Kali, although men profess to belong to so many different kinds of religion, most of them commit sinful activities against the orders of the Vedic scriptures. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu therefore says herein: veda-nisiddha papa kare, dharma nahi gane. In this age, men may profess a religion, but they actually do not follow the principles. Instead, they commit all kinds of sin.

 

TEXT 147

 

TEXT

 

dharmacari-madhye bahuta 'karma-nistha'

koti-karma-nistha-madhye eka jnani' srestha

 

SYNONYMS

 

dharma-acari-madhye--among persons who actually follow the Vedic principles or religious system; bahuta--many of them; karma-nistha--attracted to fruitive activities; koti-karma-nistha-madhye--among millions of such performers of fruitive activities according to Vedic principles; eka--one; jnani--wise man; srestha--the chief.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Among the followers of Vedic knowledge, most are following the process of fruitive activity and distinguishing between good and bad work. Out of many such sincere fruitive actors, there may be one who is actually wise.

 

PURPORT

 

Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura states that the word karma-nistha refers to one who aspires to enjoy the results of his good work and pious activity. Some followers of Vedic principles offer everything to the Absolute Truth and do not aspire to enjoy the results of their pious actions. These are also considered among the karma-nisthas. Sometimes we see pious men earn money with great hardship and then spend the money for some pious cause by opening public charities, schools and hospitals. Whether one earns money for himself or for the public benefit, he is called a karma-nistha. Out of millions of karma-nisthas there may be one who is wise. Those who try to avoid fruitive activity and who become silent in order to merge into the spiritual existence of the Absolute Truth are generally known as jnanis, wise men. They are not interested in fruitive activity but in merging into the Supreme. In either case, both are interested in personal benefit. The karmis are directly interested in personal benefit within the material world, and the jnanis are interested in merging into the existence of the Supreme. The jnanis maintain that fruitive activity is imperfect. For them, perfection is the cessation of work and the merging into the supreme existence. That is their goal in life. The jnani wants to extinguish the distinction between knowledge, the knower and the aim of knowledge. This philosophy is called monism, or oneness, and is characterized by spiritual silence.

 

TEXT 148

 

TEXT

 

koti-jnani-madhye haya eka-jana 'mukta'

koti-mukta-madhye 'durlabha' eka krsna-bhakta

 

SYNONYMS

 

koti-jnani-madhye--out of many millions of such wise men; haya--there is; eka-jana--one person; mukta--actually liberated; koti-mukta-madhye--out of many millions of such liberated persons; durlabha--very rare; eka--one; krsna-bhakta--pure devotee of Lord Krsna.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Out of many millions of such wise men, one may actually become liberated [mukta], and out of many millions of such liberated persons, a pure devotee of Lord Krsna is very difficult to find.

 

PURPORT

 

In Srimad-Bhagavatam it is said that due to their poor fund of knowledge, the jnanis are not actually liberated. They simply think that they are liberated. The perfection of knowledge culminates when one comes to the platform of knowing the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Brahmeti paramatmeti bhagavan iti sabdyate. The Absolute Truth (satya-vastu) is described as Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan. Knowledge of impersonal Brahman and the Supersoul is imperfect until one comes to the platform of knowing the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is therefore clearly said in this verse: koti-mukta-madhye 'durlabha' eka krsna-bhakta. Those who search after the knowledge of impersonal Brahman or localized Paramatma are certainly accepted as liberated, but due to their imperfect knowledge they are described in Srimad-Bhagavatam as vimukta-maninah. Since their knowledge is imperfect, their conception of liberation is imperfect. Perfect knowledge is possible when one knows the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is supported in Bhagavad-gita (5.29):

 

bhoktaram yajna-tapasam

sarva-loka-mahesvaram

suhrdam sarva-bhutanam

jnatva mam santim rcchati

 

"The sages, knowing Me as the ultimate purpose of all sacrifices and austerities, the Supreme Lord of all planets and demigods and the benefactor and well-wisher of all living entities, attain peace from the pangs of material miseries."

Research is going on for the karmis, jnanis and yogis, but until the search is complete, no one can attain peace. Therefore Bhagavad-gita says, jnatva mam santim rcchati: one can actually attain peace when he knows Krsna. This is described in the next verse.

 

TEXT 149

 

TEXT

 

krsna-bhakta----niskama, ataeva 'santa'

bhukti-mukti-siddhi-kami----sakali 'asanta'

 

SYNONYMS

 

krsna-bhakta--a devotee of Lord Krsna; niskama--actually desireless; ataeva--therefore; santa--peaceful; bhukti--of material enjoyment; mukti--of liberation from material activities; siddhi--of perfection in yogic performance; kami--those who are desirous; sakali--all of them; asanta--not peaceful.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Because a devotee of Lord Krsna is desireless, he is peaceful. Fruitive workers desire material enjoyment, jnanis desire liberation, and yogis desire material opulence; therefore they are all lusty and cannot be peaceful.

 

PURPORT

 

The devotee of Lord Krsna has no desire other than serving Krsna. Even so-called liberated people are full of desires. Fruitive actors desire better living accommodations, and jnanis want to be one with the Supreme. Yogis desire material opulence, yogic perfections and magic. All of these are lusty (kami). Because they desire something, they cannot have peace.

The peace formula is given by Krsna in Bhagavad-gita:

 

bhoktaram yajna-tapasam

sarva-loka-mahesvaram

suhrdam sarva-bhutanam

jnatva mam santim rcchati

 

If one can understand that the only supreme enjoyer is Krsna, one will perform all kinds of sacrifices, penances and austerities in order to attain Krsna's devotional service. Krsna is the Supreme Being, the proprietor of all the material worlds; therefore throughout the entire universe He is the only enjoyer and beneficiary. He is the only friend who can actually do good to all living entities (suhrdam sarva-bhutanam). If one understands Krsna, he immediately becomes desireless (niskama) because a krsna-bhakta knows that his friend and protector in all respects is Krsna, who is able to do anything for His devotee. Krsna says, kaunteya pratijanihi na me bhaktah pranasyati: "O son of Kunti, declare it boldly that My devotee never perishes." Since Krsna gives this assurance, the devotee lives in Krsna and has no desire for personal benefit. The background for the devotee is the all-good Himself. Why should the devotee aspire for something good for himself? His only business is to please the Supreme by rendering service as much as possible. A krsna-bhakta has no desire for his own personal benefit. He is completely protected by the Supreme. Avasya raksibe krsna visvasa palana. Bhaktivinoda Thakura says that he is desireless because Krsna will give him protection in all circumstances. It is not that he expects any assistance from Krsna; he simply depends on Krsna just as a child depends on his parents. The child does not know how to expect service from his parents, but he is always protected nevertheless. This is called niskama (desirelessness).

Although karmis, jnanis and yogis fulfill their desires by performing various activities, they are never satisfied. A karmi may work very hard to acquire a million dollars, but as soon as he gets a million dollars he desires another million. For the karmis, there is no end of desire. The more the karmi gets, the more he desires. The jnanis cannot be desireless because their intelligence is unsound. They want to merge into the Brahman effulgence, but even though they may be raised to that platform, they cannot be satisfied there. There are many jnanis or sannyasis who give up the world as false, but after taking sannyasa they return to the world to engage in politics or philanthropy or to open schools and hospitals. This means that they could not attain the real Brahman (brahma satyam). They have to come down to the material platform to engage in philanthropic activity. Thus they again cultivate desires, and when these desires are exhausted, they desire something different. Therefore the jnani cannot be niskama, desireless. Nor can the yogis be desireless, for they desire yogic perfections in order to exhibit some magical feats and gain popularity. People gather around these yogis, and the yogis desire more and more adulation. Because they misuse their mystic power, they fall down again onto the material platform. It is not possible for them to become niskama, desireless.

The conclusion is that only the devotees who are simply satisfied in serving the Lord can actually become desireless. Therefore it is written: krsna-bhakta niskama. Since the krsna-bhakta, the devotee of Krsna, is satisfied with Krsna, there is no possibility of falldown.

 

TEXT 150

 

TEXT

 

muktanam api siddhanam

narayana-parayanah

sudurlabhah prasantatma

kotisv api maha-mune

 

SYNONYMS

 

muktanam--of persons liberated or freed from the bondage of ignorance; api--even; siddhanam--of persons who have achieved perfection; narayana--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; parayanah--the devotee; su-durlabhah--very rare; prasanta-atma--completely satisfied, desireless; kotisu--among many millions; api--certainly; maha-mune--O great sage.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'O great sage, out of many millions of materially liberated people who are free from ignorance, and out of many millions of siddhas who have nearly attained perfection, there is hardly one pure devotee of Narayana. Only such a devotee is actually completely satisfied and peaceful.'

 

PURPORT

 

This verse is quoted from Srimad-Bhagavatam (6.14.5). The narayana-parayana, the devotee of Lord Narayana, is the only blissful person. One who becomes a narayana-parayana is already liberated from material bondage. He already possesses all the perfections of yoga. Unless one comes to the platform of narayana-parayana and passes over the platform of bhukti-mukti-siddhi, he cannot be fully satisfied. That is the pure devotional stage.

 

anyabhilasita-sunyam

jnana-karmady-anavrtam

anukulyena krsnanu-

silanam bhaktir uttama

 

One who has no other desire but Krsna and who is not influenced by the process of jnana-marga (cultivation of knowledge) actually becomes free from ignorance. A first-class person is one who is not influenced by karma (fruitive activity) or yoga (mystic power). He simply depends on Krsna and is satisfied in his devotional service. According to Srimad-Bhagavatam (6.17.28): narayana-parah sarve na kutascana bibhyati. Such a person is never afraid of anything. For him, heaven and hell are the same. Not knowing the situation of a narayana-parayana, rascals become envious. By the grace of Narayana, a devotee is situated in the most opulent position in the material world. Rascals are envious of Narayana and His devotee, but the devotee knows how to please another devotee of Narayana because he knows that by pleasing Narayana's representative, one directly pleases Lord Narayana. Therefore a devotee offers the best facilities to his spiritual master because he knows that by pleasing Narayana's representative, he can please Lord Narayana. Outsiders who have no knowledge of Narayana are envious both of Narayana and of His devotee. Consequently when they see that Narayana's devotee is opulently situated, they become envious. But when the devotee of Narayana asks such foolish people to come live with him in the same comfortable situation, they do not agree because they cannot give up illicit sex, meat eating, intoxication and gambling. Therefore the materialist refuses the company of a narayana-parayana, although he is envious of the devotee's material situation. In Western countries when ordinary men-storekeepers and workers-see our devotees living and eating sumptuously and yet not working, they become very anxious to know where they get the money. Such people become envious and ask, "How is it possible to live so comfortably without working? How is it you have so many cars, bright faces and nice clothes?" Not knowing that Krsna looks after His devotees, such people become surprised, and some become envious.

 

TEXT 151

 

TEXT

 

brahmanda bhramite kona bhagyavan jiva

guru-krsna-prasade paya bhakti-lata-bija

 

SYNONYMS

 

brahmanda bhramite--wandering in this universe; kona--some; bhagyavan--most fortunate; jiva--living being; guru--of the spiritual master; krsna--of Krsna; prasade--by the mercy; paya--gets; bhakti-lata--of the creeper of devotional service; bija--the seed.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"According to their karma, all living entities are wandering throughout the entire universe. Some of them are being elevated to the upper planetary systems, and some are going down into the lower planetary systems. Out of many millions of wandering living entities, one who is very fortunate gets an opportunity to associate with a bona fide spiritual master by the grace of Krsna. By the mercy of both Krsna and the spiritual master, such a person receives the seed of the creeper of devotional service.

 

PURPORT

 

When we speak of brahmanda, we refer to the whole universe, or to the cluster of many millions of universes. In all universes, there are innumerable planets and innumerable living entities upon those planets in the air and in the water. There are millions and trillions of living entities everywhere, and they are engaged by maya in suffering and enjoying the results of their fruitive activity life after life. This is the position of the materially conditioned living entities. Out of many of these living entities, if one is actually fortunate (bhagyavan), he comes in contact with a bona fide spiritual master by Krsna's mercy.

Krsna is situated in everyone's heart, and if one desires something, Krsna fulfills one's desire. If the living entity by chance or fortune comes in contact with the Krsna consciousness movement and wishes to associate with that movement, Krsna, who is situated in everyone's heart, gives him the chance to meet a bona fide spiritual master. This is called guru-krsna-prasada. Krsna is prepared to bestow His mercy upon all living entities, and as soon as a living entity desires the Lord's mercy, the Lord immediately gives him an opportunity to meet a bona fide spiritual master. Such a person is fortified by both Krsna and the spiritual master. He is helped from within by Krsna and from without by the spiritual master. Both are prepared to help the sincere living being become free from this material bondage.

How one can become this fortunate can be seen in the life of Srila Narada Muni. In his previous life he was born of a maidservant. Although he was not born into a prestigious position, his mother was fortunately engaged in rendering service to some Vaisnavas. When these Vaisnavas were resting during the Caturmasya period, the boy Narada took the opportunity to engage in their service. Taking compassion upon the boy, the Vaisnavas offered him the remnants of their food.

By serving them and obeying their orders, the boy became the object of sympathy for the Vaisnavas, and, by the Vaisnavas' unknown mercy, he gradually became a pure devotee. In the next life he was Narada Muni, the most exalted of Vaisnavas and the most important guru and acarya of Vaisnavas.

Following in the footsteps of Narada Muni, this Krsna consciousness movement is rendering service to humanity by giving everyone a chance to come in contact with Krsna. If one is fortunate, he becomes intimately related with this movement. Then, by the grace of Krsna, one's life becomes successful. Everyone has dormant krsna-bhakti-love for Krsna-and in the association of good devotees, that love is revealed. As stated in Caitanya-caritamrta (Madhya 22.107):

 

nitya-siddha-krsna-prema 'sadhya' kabhu naya

sravanadi-suddha-citte karaye udaya

 

Dormant devotional service to Krsna is within everyone. Simply by associating with devotees, hearing their good instructions and chanting the Hare Krsna mantra, dormant love for Krsna is awakened. In this way one acquires the seed of devotional service. Guru-krsna-prasade paya bhakti-lata-bija.

 

TEXT 152

 

TEXT

 

mali hana kare sei bija aropana

sravana-kirtana-jale karaye secana

 

SYNONYMS

 

mali hana--becoming a gardener; kare--does; sei--that; bija--seed of devotional service; aropana--sowing; sravana--of hearing; kirtana--of chanting; jale--with the water; karaye--does; secana--sprinkling.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"When a person receives the seed of devotional service, he should take care of it by becoming a gardener and sowing the seed in his heart. If he waters the seed gradually by the process of sravana and kirtana [hearing and chanting], the seed will begin to sprout.

 

PURPORT

 

To live with devotees or to live in a temple means to associate with the sravana-kirtana process. Sometimes neophyte devotees think that they can continue the sravana-kirtana process without worshiping the Deity, but the execution of sravana-kirtana is meant for highly developed devotees like Haridasa Thakura, who engaged in the sravana-kirtana process without worshiping the Deity. However, one should not falsely imitate Haridasa Thakura and abandon Deity worship just to try to engage in sravana-kirtana. This is not possible for neophyte devotees.

The word guru-prasada indicates that the spiritual master is very merciful in bestowing the boon of devotional service upon the disciple. That is the best possible gift the spiritual master has to offer. Those with a background of pious life are eligible to receive life's supreme benefit, and to bestow this benefit, the Supreme Personality of Godhead sends His representative to impart His mercy. Endowed with the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the spiritual master distributes the mercy to those who are elevated and pious. Thus the spiritual master trains his disciples to render devotional service unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is called guru-krpa. It is krsna-prasada, Krsna's mercy, that He sends a bona fide spiritual master to the deserving disciple. By the mercy of Krsna, one meets the bona fide spiritual master, and by the mercy of the spiritual master, the disciple is fully trained in the devotional service of the Lord.

Bhakti-lata-bija means "the seed of devotional service." Everything has an original cause, or seed. For any idea, program, plan or device, there is first of all the contemplation of the plan, and that is called bija, or the seed. The methods, rules and regulations by which one is perfectly trained in devotional service constitute the bhakti-lata-bija, or seed of devotional service. This bhakti-lata-bija is received from the spiritual master by the grace of Krsna. Other seeds are called anyabhilasa-bija, karma-bija and jnana-bija. If one is not fortunate enough to receive the bhakti-lata-bija from the spiritual master, he instead cultivates the seeds of karma-bija, jnana-bija, or political and social or philanthropic bija. However, bhakti-lata-bija is different from these other bijas. Bhakti-lata-bija can be received only through the mercy of the spiritual master. Therefore one has to satisfy the spiritual master to get bhakti-lata-bija (yasya prasadad bhagavat-prasadah). Bhakti-lata-bija is the origin of devotional service. Unless one satisfies the spiritual master, he gets the bija, or root cause, of karma, jnana and yoga without the benefit of devotional service. However, one who is faithful to his spiritual master gets the bhakti-lata-bija. This bhakti-lata-bija is received when one is initiated by the bona fide spiritual master. After receiving the spiritual master's mercy, one must repeat his instructions, and this is called sravana-kirtana-hearing and chanting. One who has not properly heard from the spiritual master or who does not follow the regulative principles is not fit for chanting (kirtana). This is explained in Bhagavad-gita (2.41): vyavasayatmika buddhir ekeha kuru-nandana. One who has not listened carefully to the instructions of the spiritual master is unfit to chant or preach the cult of devotional service. One has to water the bhakti-lata-bija after receiving instructions from the spiritual master.

 

TEXT 153

 

TEXT

 

upajiya bade lata 'brahmanda' bhedi' yaya

'viraja' 'brahma-loka' bhedi' 'para-vyoma' paya

 

SYNONYMS

 

upajiya--being cultivated; bade--increases; lata--the creeper of devotional service; brahmanda--the whole universe; bhedi'--penetrating; yaya--goes; viraja--the river between the spiritual world and the material world; brahma-loka--the Brahman effulgence; bhedi'--penetrating; para-vyoma--the spiritual sky; paya--attains.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"As one waters the bhakti-lata-bija, the seed sprouts, and the creeper gradually increases to the point where it penetrates the walls of this universe and goes beyond the Viraja River between the spiritual world and the material world. It attains brahma-loka, the Brahman effulgence, and, penetrating through that stratum, it reaches the spiritual sky and the spiritual planet Goloka Vrndavana.

 

PURPORT

 

A creeper generally takes shelter of a big tree, but the bhakti-lata, being the creeper of spiritual energy, cannot take shelter of any material planet, for there is no tree on any material planet that the bhakti-lata creeper can utilize for shelter. In other words, devotional service cannot be utilized for any material purpose. Devotional service is meant only for the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Sometimes men with a poor fund of knowledge maintain that bhakti can be applied to material things also. In other words, they say that devotional service can be rendered to one's country or to the demigods, but this is not a fact. Devotional service is especially meant for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and it is beyond this material range. There is a river, or causal ocean, between the spiritual and material natures, and this river is free from the influence of the three modes of material nature; therefore it is called Viraja. The word vi means vigata (completely eradicated), and rajah means "the influence of the material world." On this platform, a living entity is completely free from material entanglement. For the jnanis who want to merge into the Brahman effulgence, there is brahma-loka. Bhakti-lata, however, has no shelter in the material world, nor has it shelter in brahma-loka, although brahma-loka is beyond the material world. The bhakti-lata increases until it reaches the spiritual sky, where Goloka Vrndavana is situated.

 

TEXT 154

 

TEXT

 

tabe yaya tad-upari 'goloka-vrndavana'

'krsna-carana'-kalpa-vrkse kare arohana

 

SYNONYMS

 

tabe--thereafter; yaya--goes; tat-upari--to the top of that (the spiritual sky); goloka-vrndavana--to the planet known as Goloka Vrndavana where Krsna lives; krsna-carana--of the lotus feet of Lord Krsna; kalpa-vrkse--on the desire tree; kare arohana--climbs.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Being situated in one's heart and being watered by sravana-kirtana, the bhakti creeper grows more and more. In this way it attains the shelter of the desire tree of the lotus feet of Krsna, who is eternally situated in the planet known as Goloka Vrndavana in the topmost region of the spiritual sky.

 

PURPORT

 

In the Brahma-samhita (5.37) it is said:

 

ananda-cinmaya-rasa-pratibhavitabhis

tabhir ya eva nija-rupataya kalabhih

goloka eva nivasaty akhilatma-bhuto

govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami

 

"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord. He resides in His own realm, Goloka, with Radha, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who embodies the ecstatic potency [hladini]. Their companions are Her confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued and permeated with ever-blissful spiritual rasa." In the spiritual world, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, has expanded Himself in His spiritual potency. He has His eternal form of bliss and knowledge (sac-cid-ananda-vigraha). Everything in the Goloka Vrndavana planet is a spiritual expansion of sac-cid-ananda. Everyone there is of the same potency-ananda-cinmaya-rasa. The relationship between the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His servitor is cinmaya-rasa. Krsna and His entourage and paraphernalia are of the same cinmaya potency. When the cinmaya-rasa potency goes through the material potency, it becomes all-pervading. Although the Supreme

Personality of Godhead exists on His own planet Goloka Vrndavana, He is present everywhere. Andantara-stha-paramanu-cayantara-stham. He is present within all universes, although they are innumerable. He is present within the atom. Isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati: He is also present within the heart of all living entities. This is His all-pervasive potency.

Goloka Vrndavana is the highest planet in the spiritual world. In order to go to the spiritual world after penetrating the cover of the material universe, one must penetrate brahma-loka, the spiritual effulgence. Then one can come to the Goloka Vrndavana planet. There are also other planets in the spiritual world called Vaikuntha planets, and on these planets Lord Narayana is worshiped with awe and veneration. On these planets the santa-rasa is prevalent, and some of the devotees are also connected with the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the dasya-rasa, the mellow of servitorship. As far as the mellow of fraternity is concerned, the Vaikuntha rasa is represented by gaurava-sakhya, friendship in awe and veneration. The other fraternity rasa is exhibited as visrambha (friendship in equality), and this is found in the Goloka Vrndavana planet. Above that is service to the Lord in vatsalya-rasa (paternal love), and above all is the relationship with the Lord in the madhurya-rasa (conjugal love). These five rasas are fully exhibited in the spiritual world in one's relationship with the Lord. Therefore in the spiritual world the bhakti-lata creeper finds its resting place at the lotus feet of Krsna.

 

TEXT 155

 

TEXT

 

tahan vistarita hana phale prema-phala

ihan mali sece nitya sravanadi jala

 

SYNONYMS

 

tahan--there in the spiritual world (in the Goloka Vrndavana planet); vistarita--expanded; hana--becoming; phale--produces; prema-phala--the fruit known as love of Godhead; ihan--in the material world, where the devotee is still present; mali--exactly like a gardener; sece--sprinkles; nitya--regularly, without fail; sravana-adi jala--the water of sravana, kirtana and so on.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The creeper greatly expands in the Goloka Vrndavana planet, and there it produces the fruit of love for Krsna. Although remaining in the material world, the gardener regularly sprinkles the creeper with the water of hearing and chanting.

 

PURPORT

 

In Goloka Vrndavana the devotees have very intimate relationships with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The devotee engages in the Lord's service in great ecstatic love. Such love was exhibited personally by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in His teachings to the people of the material world. The fruit of the devotional creeper is pure desire to serve and please the senses of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Krsnendriya-priti-iccha dhare 'prema' nama. (Cc. Adi 4.165) In the spiritual world one has no desire other than to please the senses of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The conditioned soul within the material world can neither understand nor appreciate how the devotee in the material world can render confidential service to the Lord out of feelings of ecstatic love and always engage in pleasing the Supreme Lord's senses. Although seen within this material world, the pure devotee always engages in the confidential service of the Lord. An ordinary neophyte devotee cannot realize this; therefore it is said, vaisnavera kriya-mudra vijnaneha na bujhaya. The activities of a pure Vaisnava cannot be understood even by a learned scholar in the material world.

Every living entity is wandering within this universe in different species and on different planetary systems according to his fruitive activities. Out of many millions of living entities, one may be fortunate enough to receive the seed of bhakti-lata, the creeper of devotional service. By the grace of the spiritual master and Krsna, one nourishes the bhakti-lata by regularly sprinkling it with the water of sravana-kirtana, hearing and chanting. In this way the seed of bhakti-lata sprouts and grows up and up through the whole universe until it penetrates the covering of the material universe and reaches the spiritual world. The bhakti-lata continues to grow until it reaches the topmost planetary system, Goloka Vrndavana, where Krsna lives. There the creeper takes shelter at the lotus feet of the Lord, and that is its final destination. At that time the creeper begins to grow the fruits of ecstatic love of God. It is the duty of the devotee who nourishes the creeper to be very careful. It is said that the watering of the creeper must continue: ihan mali sece nitya sravanadi jala. It is not that at a certain stage one can stop chanting and hearing and become a mature devotee. If one stops, one certainly falls down from devotional service. Although one may be very exalted in devotional service, he should not give up the watering process of sravana-kirtana. If one gives up that process, it is due to an offense. This is described in the following verse.

 

TEXT 156

 

TEXT

 

yadi vaisnava-aparadha uthe hati mata

upade va chinde, tara sukhi' yaya pata

 

SYNONYMS

 

yadi--if; vaisnava-aparadha--an offense at the feet of a Vaisnava; uthe--arises; hati--an elephant; mata--mad; upade--uproots; va--or; chinde--breaks; tara--of the creeper; sukhi'--shriveling up; yaya--goes; pata--the leaf.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"If the devotee commits an offense at the feet of a Vaisnava while cultivating the creeper of devotional service in the material world, his offense is compared to a mad elephant that uproots the creeper and breaks it. In this way the leaves of the creeper are dried up.

 

PURPORT

 

One's devotional attitude increases in the association of a Vaisnava.

 

tandera carana sevi bhakta-sane vasa

janame janame haya, ei abhilasa

 

By his personal example, Narottama dasa Thakura stresses that a devotee must always remember to please his predecessor acarya. The Gosvamis are represented by one's spiritual master. One cannot be an acarya (spiritual master) without following strictly in the disciplic succession of the acaryas. One who is actually serious in advancing in devotional service should desire only to satisfy the previous acaryas. Ei chaya gosani yara, mui tara dasa. One should always think of oneself as a servant of the servant of the acaryas, and thinking this, one should live in the society of Vaisnavas. However, if one thinks that he has become very mature and can live separate from the association of Vaisnavas and thus gives up all the regulative principles due to offending a Vaisnava, one's position becomes very dangerous. Offenses against the holy name are explained in Adi-lila (Chapter Eight, verse 24). Giving up the regulative principles and living according to one's whims are compared to a mad elephant, which by force uproots the bhakti-lata and breaks it to pieces. In this way the bhakti-lata shrivels up. Such an offense is especially created when one disobeys the instructions of the spiritual master. This is called guru-avajna. The devotee must therefore be very careful not to commit offenses against the spiritual master. As soon as one is deviated from the spiritual master, the uprooting of the bhakti-lata begins, and gradually all the leaves dry up.

 

TEXT 157

 

TEXT

 

tate mali yatna kari' kare avarana

aparadha-hastira yaiche na haya udgama

 

SYNONYMS

 

tate--therefore; mali--the gardener devotee; yatna kari'--with great attention; kare--makes; avarana--protective fencing; aparadha--of offenses; hastira--of the elephant; yaiche--so that; na--not; haya--there is; udgama--birth.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The gardener must defend the creeper by fencing it all around so that the powerful elephant of offenses may not enter.

 

PURPORT

 

While the bhakti-lata creeper is growing, the devotee must protect it by fencing it all around. The neophyte devotee must be protected by being surrounded by pure devotees. In this way he will not give the maddened elephant a chance to uproot his bhakti-lata creeper. When one associates with nondevotees, the maddened elephant is set loose. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has said: asat-sanga-tyaga,--ei vaisnava-acara. The first business of a Vaisnava is to give up the company of nondevotees. A so-called mature devotee, however, commits a great offense by giving up the company of pure devotees. The living entity is a social animal, and if one gives up the society of pure devotees, he must associate with nondevotees (asat-sanga). By contacting nondevotees and engaging in nondevotional activities, a so-called mature devotee will fall victim to the mad elephant offense. Whatever growth has taken place is quickly uprooted by such an offense. One should therefore be very careful to defend the creeper by fencing it in-that is, by following the regulative principles and associating with pure devotees.

If one thinks that there are many pseudo devotees or nondevotees in the Krsna Consciousness Society, one can keep direct company with the spiritual master, and if there is any doubt, one should consult the spiritual master. However, unless one follows the spiritual master's instructions and the regulative principles governing chanting and hearing the holy name of the Lord, one cannot become a pure devotee. By one's mental concoctions, one falls down. By associating with nondevotees, one breaks the regulative principles and is thereby lost. In the Upadesamrta of Srila Rupa Gosvami, it is said:

 

atyaharah prayasas ca

prajalpo niyamagrahah

jana-sangas ca laulyam ca

sadbhir bhaktir vinasyati

 

"One's devotional service is spoiled when he becomes too entangled in the following six activities: (1) eating more than necessary or collecting more funds than required, (2) overendeavoring for mundane things that are very difficult to attain, (3) talking unnecessarily about mundane subject matters, (4) practicing the scriptural rules and regulations only for the sake of following them and not for the sake of spiritual advancement, or rejecting the rules and regulations of the scriptures and working independently or whimsically, (5) associating with worldly-minded persons who are not interested in Krsna consciousness, and (6) being greedy for mundane achievements."

 

TEXT 158

 

TEXT

 

kintu yadi latara sange uthe 'upasakha'

bhukti-mukti-vancha, yata asankhya tara lekha

 

SYNONYMS

 

kintu--but; yadi--if; latara--the creeper of devotional service; sange--with; uthe--arise; upasakha--unwanted creepers; bhukti--for material enjoyment; mukti--for liberation from the material world; vancha--the desires; yata--as many as there are; asankhya--unlimited; tara--of those unwanted creepers; lekha--the writing.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Sometimes unwanted creepers, such as the creepers of desires for material enjoyment and liberation from the material world, grow along with the creeper of devotional service. The varieties of such unwanted creepers are unlimited.

 

TEXT 159

 

TEXT

 

'nisiddhacara', 'kutinati', 'jiva-himsana'

'labha', 'puja', 'pratisthadi' yata upasakha-gana

 

SYNONYMS

 

nisiddha-acara--behavior not to be exhibited by a person desiring to become perfect; kutinati--diplomacy; jiva-himsana--unnecessarily killing animals or the soul; labha--profit according to material calculations; puja--adoration achieved by satisfying mundane people; pratistha-adi--becoming an important man in material calculations, and so on; yata--all these; upasakha-gana--unnecessary creepers.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Some unnecessary creepers growing with the bhakti creeper are the creepers of behavior unacceptable for those trying to attain perfection, diplomatic behavior, animal killing, mundane profiteering, mundane adoration and mundane importance. All these are unwanted creepers.

 

PURPORT

 

There is a certain pattern of behavior prescribed for those actually trying to become perfect. In our Krsna consciousness movement we advise our students not to eat meat, not to gamble, not to engage in illicit sex and not to indulge in intoxication. People who indulge in these activities can never become perfect; therefore these regulative principles are for those interested in becoming perfect and going back to Godhead. Kutinati, or diplomatic behavior, cannot satisfy the atma, the soul. It cannot even satisfy the body or the mind. The culprit mind is always suspicious; therefore our dealings should always be straightforward and approved by Vedic authorities. If we treat people diplomatically or duplicitously, our spiritual advancement is obstructed. Jiva-himsana refers to the killing of animals or to envy of other living entities. The killing of poor animals is undoubtedly due to envy of those animals. The human form is meant for the understanding of Krsna consciousness (athato brahma-jijnasa), for inquiring about the Supreme Brahman. In the human form, everyone has a chance to understand the Supreme Brahman. The so-called leaders of human society do not know the real aim of human life and are therefore busy with economic development. This is misleading. Every state and every society is busy trying to improve the quality of eating, sleeping, mating and defending. This human form of life is meant for more than these four animal principles. Eating, sleeping, mating and defending are problems found in the animal kingdom, and the animals have solved their problems without difficulty. Why should human society be so busy trying to solve these problems? The difficulty is that people are not educated to understand this simple philosophy. They think that advancement of civilization means increasing sense gratification.

There are many religious propagandists who do not know how the ultimate problems of life can be solved, and they also try to educate people in a form of sense gratification. This is also jiva-himsana. Real knowledge is not given, and religionists mislead the general populace. As far as material profits are concerned, one should know that whatever material profit one has must be abandoned at the time of death. Unfortunately people do not know that there is life after death; therefore mundane people waste their time amassing material profit which has to be left behind at the time of death. Such profit has no eternal benefit. Similarly, adoration by mundane people is valueless because after death one has to accept another body. Material adoration and title are decorations that cannot be carried over to the next body. In the next life, everything is forgotten.

All these obstructions have been described in this verse as unwanted creepers. They simply present obstacles for the real creeper, bhakti-lata-bija. One should be very careful to avoid all these unwanted things. Sometimes these unwanted creepers look exactly like the bhakti-lata creeper. They appear to be of the same size and the same species when they are packed together with the bhakti-lata creeper, but in spite of this, the creepers are called upasakha. A pure devotee can distinguish between the bhakti-lata creeper and a mundane creeper, and he is very alert to distinguish them and keep them separate.

 

TEXT 160

 

TEXT

 

seka-jala pana upasakha badi' yaya

stabdha hana mula-sakha badite na paya

 

SYNONYMS

 

seka-jala--sprinkling water; pana--getting; upasakha--the unwanted creepers; badi' yaya--grow luxuriantly; stabdha hana--becoming stopped; mula-sakha--the chief creeper; badite--to increase; na paya--is not able.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"If one does not distinguish between the bhakti-lata creeper and the other creepers, the sprinkling of water is misused because the other creepers are nourished while the bhakti-lata creeper is curtailed.

 

PURPORT

 

If one chants the Hare Krsna mantra while committing offenses, these unwanted creepers will grow. One should not take advantage of chanting the Hare Krsna mantra for some material profit. As mentioned in verse 159:

 

'nisiddhacara', 'kutinati', jiva-himsana'

'labha', 'puja', 'pratisthadi' yata upasakha-gana

 

The unwanted creepers have been described by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura. He states that if one hears and chants without trying to give up offenses, one becomes materially attached to sense gratification. One may also desire freedom from material bondage like the Mayavadis, or one may become attached to the yoga-siddhis and desire wonderful yogic powers. If one is attached to wonderful material activities, one is called siddhi-lobhi, greedy for material perfection. One may also be victimized by diplomatic or crooked behavior, or one may associate with women for illicit sex. Others may make a show of devotional service like the prakrta-sahajiyas, or one may try to support his philosophy by joining some caste or identifying himself with a certain dynasty, claiming a monopoly on spiritual advancement. Thus with the support of family tradition, one may become a pseudo guru or so-called spiritual master. One may become attached to the four sinful activities-illicit sex, intoxication, gambling and meat eating, or one may consider a Vaisnava to belong to a mundane caste or creed. One may think, "This is a Hindu Vaisnava, and this is a European Vaisnava. A European Vaisnava is not allowed to enter the temples." In other words, one may consider Vaisnavas in terms of birth, thinking one a brahmana Vaisnava, a sudra Vaisnava, a mleccha Vaisnava and so on. One may also try to carry out a professional business while chanting the Hare Krsna mantra or reading Srimad-Bhagavatam, or one may try to increase his monetary strength by illegal means. One may also try to be a cheap Vaisnava by chanting in a secluded place for material adoration, or one may desire mundane reputation by making compromises with nondevotees, compromising one's philosophy or spiritual life, or one may become a supporter of a hereditary caste system. All these are pitfalls of personal sense gratification. Just to cheat some innocent people, one makes a show of advanced spiritual life and becomes known as a sadhu, mahatma or religious person. All this means that the so-called devotee has become victimized by all these unwanted creepers and that the real creeper of bhakti-lata-bija has been stunted.

 

TEXT 161

 

TEXT

 

prathamei upasakhara karaye chedana

tabe mula-sakha badi' yaya vrndavana

 

SYNONYMS

 

prathamei--from the very beginning; upasakhara--of the unwanted creepers; karaye--does; chedana--the cutting away; tabe--then only; mula-sakha--the chief creeper; badi'--increasing; yaya--goes; vrndavana--to the lotus feet of Lord Sri Krsna in Vrndavana.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"As soon as an intelligent devotee sees an unwanted creeper growing beside the original creeper, he must cut it down instantly. Then the real creeper of bhakti-lata-bija grows nicely, returns home, back to Godhead, and seeks shelter under the lotus feet of Krsna.

 

PURPORT

 

If one is misled by unwanted creepers and is victimized, he cannot make progress back to Godhead. Rather, he remains within the material world and engages in activities having nothing to do with pure devotional service. Such a person may be elevated to the higher planetary systems, but because he remains within the material world, he is subjected to the threefold material miseries.

 

TEXT 162

 

TEXT

 

'prema-phala' paki' pade, mali asvadaya

lata avalambi' mali 'kalpa-vrksa' paya

 

SYNONYMS

 

prema-phala--the fruit of love of God; paki'--becoming mature; pade--falls down; mali--the gardener; asvadaya--tastes; lata avalambi'--taking advantage of the growing bhakti-lata; mali--the gardener; kalpa-vrksa paya--reaches the desire tree in Goloka Vrndavana.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"When the fruit of devotional service becomes ripe and falls down, the gardener tastes the fruit and thus takes advantage of the creeper and reaches the desire tree of the lotus feet of Krsna in Goloka Vrndavana.

 

TEXT 163

 

TEXT

 

tahan sei kalpa-vrksera karaye sevana

sukhe prema-phala-rasa kare asvadana

 

SYNONYMS

 

tahan--there (in Goloka Vrndavana); sei kalpa-vrksera--of the lotus feet of Krsna, which are compared to a desire tree; karaye sevana--engages in the service; sukhe--in transcendental bliss; prema-phala-rasa--the juice of the fruit of devotional service; kare--does; asvadana--tasting.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"There the devotee serves the lotus feet of the Lord, which are compared to a wish-fulfilling tree. With great bliss he tastes the juice of the fruit of love and becomes eternally happy.

 

PURPORT

 

The word tahan indicates that in the spiritual world one can taste the juice of the fruit of devotional service and thus become blissful.

 

TEXT 164

 

TEXT

 

eita parama-phala 'parama-purusartha'

yanra age trna-tulya cari purusartha

 

SYNONYMS

 

eita--this; parama-phala--the supreme goal of life; parama--supreme; purusa-artha--interest of the living being; yanra age--in the presence of which; trna-tulya--very insignificant; cari--four; purusa-artha--the different types of human interests.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"To taste the fruit of devotional service at Goloka Vrndavana is the highest perfection of life, and in the presence of such perfection, the four material perfections-religion, economic development, sense gratification and liberation-are very insignificant achievements.

 

PURPORT

 

The highest achievement attained by the jnanis or impersonalists is becoming one with the Supreme, generally known as moksa, liberation. The highest achievements of the yogis are the eight material perfections such as anima, laghima and prapti. Yet these are nothing compared to the eternal bliss of the devotee who returns back to Godhead and tastes the fruit of devotional service to the lotus feet of the Lord. The material perfections up to the point of liberation are very insignificant in comparison; therefore the pure devotee is never interested in such things. His only interest is in perfecting his devotional service to the Lord. The pleasure of the impersonalist monist philosophers is condemned in the following verse, which is also found in Srila Rupa Gosvami's Lalita-madhava.

 

TEXT 165

 

TEXT

 

rddha siddhi-vraja-vijayita satya-dharma samadhir

brahmanando gurur api camatkarayaty eva tavat

yavat premnam madhu-ripu-vasikara-siddhausadhinam

gandho 'py antah-karana-sarani-panthatam na prayati

 

SYNONYMS

 

rddha--excellent; siddhi-vraja--of the groups of material perfections of the yogis (anima, laghima, prapti and so on); vijayita--the victory; satya-dharma--the religious principles of perfection (satya, sama, titiksa and so on); samadhih--the yogic perfection of meditation; brahma-anandah--the spiritually blissful life of the monist; guruh--very high in material considerations; api--although; camatkarayati--they appear very important; eva--only; tavat--that long; yavat--as long as; premnam--of love of Krsna; madhu-ripu--of Krsna, the enemy of the Madhu demon; vasikara--in the controlling; siddha-ausadhinam--which is like perfect herbs that can control snakes; gandhah--a light fragrance; api--even; antah-karana-sarani-panthatam--a traveler on the path of the heart; na prayati--does not become.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"As long as there is not the slightest fragrance of pure love of Krsna, which is the perfected medicinal herb for controlling Lord Krsna within the heart, the opulences of material perfection-known as the siddhis, the brahminical perfections [satya, sama, titiksa and so on], the trance of the yogis and the monistic bliss of Brahman-all seem wonderful for men.

 

PURPORT

 

There are different types of material perfection known as siddhi-vraja, brahminical qualifications, yogic trance and merging into the Supreme. All these are certainly very attractive for a mundane person, but their brilliance exists only as long as one does not take to devotional service. Devotional service can control the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the supreme controller of all universal affairs. The five rasas (mellows) in the transcendental world are practiced by the inhabitants of Goloka Vrndavana in neutrality, servitorship, friendship, paternal affection and conjugal love. All these please the Lord so much that He is controlled by the devotees. For instance, mother Yasoda was so advanced in devotional service that Krsna agreed to be controlled by her stick. In other words, the five principal mellows are so great and glorious that they are able to control the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the material world, however, the so-called siddhis, or perfections, manifest their brightness only as long as one is not interested in devotional service. In other words, the perfection of the karmis, jnanis, yogis and others remains attractive only as long as one does not come to the point of devotional service, which is so great and significant that it can control the supreme controller, Krsna.

 

TEXT 166

 

TEXT

 

'suddha-bhakti' haite haya 'prema' utpanna

ataeva suddha-bhaktira kahiye 'laksana'

 

SYNONYMS

 

suddha-bhakti--pure devotional service without material contaminations; haite--from; haya--is; prema--love of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; utpanna--produced; ataeva--therefore; suddha-bhaktira--of pure devotional service; kahiye--let me explain; laksana--the symptoms.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"When one is situated in pure devotional service, he develops love of Godhead; therefore let me describe some of the symptoms of pure devotional service.

 

PURPORT

 

In Bhagavad-gita (18.55) it is said: bhaktya mam abhijanati yavan yas casmi tattvatah. One cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead in truth unless he takes to devotional service.

 

TEXT 167

 

TEXT

 

anyabhilasita-sunyam

jnana-karmady-anavrtam

anukulyena krsnanu-

silanam bhaktir uttama

 

SYNONYMS

 

anya-abhilasita-sunyam--without desires other than those for the service of Lord Krsna, or without material desires (such as those for meat-eating, illicit sex, gambling and addiction to intoxicants); <footnote> Here jnana does not refer to perfect knowledge in devotional service. One has to learn the path of devotional service with full knowledge).jnana--by the knowledge of the philosophy of the monist Mayavadis; karma--by fruitive activities; adi--by artificially practicing detachment, by the mechanical practice of yoga, by studying the Sankhya philosophy, and so on; anavrtam--uncovered; anukulyena--favorable; krsna-anusilanam--cultivation of service in relationship to Krsna; bhaktih uttama--first-class devotional service.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"When first-class devotional service develops, one must be devoid of all material desires, knowledge obtained by monistic philosophy, and fruitive action. The devotee must constantly serve Krsna favorably, as Krsna desires.

 

PURPORT

 

This verse is also found in Srila Rupa Gosvami's Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.1.11). As we can understand from Bhagavad-gita (9.34 and 18.65), the Supreme Personality of Godhead wants everyone to think of Him always (man-mana bhava mad-bhaktah). Everyone should become His devotee, not the devotee of a demigod. Everyone should engage in devotional service or arcana Deity worship in the temple. Man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru. Everyone should offer obeisances, from moment to moment, to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. These are the desires of the Supreme Lord, and one who fulfills His desires favorably is actually a pure devotee. Krsna wants everyone to surrender unto Him, and devotional service means preaching this gospel all over the world. The Lord says openly in Bhagavad-gita (18.69): na ca tasman manusyesu kascin me priya-krttamah. One should preach the gospel of Bhagavad-gita for the benefit of all. Bhagavad-gita is spoken by the Lord so that human society can be perfectly organized from all angles of vision-politically, socially, economically, philosophically and religiously. From any point of view, human society can be reformed by the Krsna consciousness movement; therefore one who spreads this philosophy of Krsna consciousness for the benefit of all conditioned souls in the universe is perfect in pure devotional service.

The criterion is that a devotee must know what Krsna wants him to do. This can be achieved through the medium of the spiritual master who is a bona fide representative of Krsna. Srila Rupa Gosvami advises, adau gurv-asrayam. One who is serious in wanting to render pure devotional service to the Lord must take shelter of the spiritual master who comes in the disciplic succession from Krsna. Evam parampara-praptam imam rajarsayo viduh. Without accepting a bona fide spiritual master coming in the disciplic succession, one cannot find out the real purpose of devotional service. Therefore one has to accept the shelter of a bona fide spiritual master and agree to be directed by him. The first business of a pure devotee is to satisfy his spiritual master, whose only business is to spread Krsna consciousness. Yasya prasadad bhagavat-prasadah: if one can satisfy the spiritual master, Krsna is automatically satisfied. This is the success of devotional service. This is the meaning of the word anukulyena-that is, favorable devotional service to the Lord. A pure devotee has no plans other than those for the Lord's service. He is not interested in attaining success in mundane activities. He simply wants success in the progress of devotional service. For a devotee, there cannot be worship of others or demigod worship. A pure devotee does not engage himself in such pseudo-devotional service. He is interested only in satisfying Krsna. If one lives only for the satisfaction of Krsna, he does not have to accept this order or that order. One's only business should be to satisfy Krsna. This process is completely manifest in the activities of the Krsna consciousness movement. It has been actually proved that the entire world can accept devotional service without failure. One simply has to follow the instructions of the representative of Krsna.

 

TEXT 168

 

TEXT

 

anya-vancha, anya-puja chadi' jnana', 'karma'

anukulye sarvendriye krsnanusilana

 

SYNONYMS

 

anya-vancha--other desires; anya-puja--other types of worship; chadi'--giving up; jnana--material knowledge; karma--material activities; anukulye--favorably; sarva-indriye--with all the senses; krsna-anusilana--cultivation of Krsna consciousness.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"A pure devotee must not cherish any other desire than to serve Krsna. He should not offer worship to the demigods or to mundane personalities. He should not cultivate artificial knowledge, which is devoid of Krsna consciousness, and he should not engage himself in anything other than Krsna conscious activities. One must engage all one's purified senses in the service of the Lord. This is the favorable execution of Krsna conscious activities.

 

TEXT 169

 

TEXT

 

ei 'suddha-bhakti'----iha haite 'prema' haya

pancaratre, bhagavate ei laksana kaya

 

SYNONYMS

 

ei--this; suddha-bhakti--pure devotional service; iha haite--from which; prema--unalloyed love of Krsna; haya--there is; pancaratre--in the Vedic literature known as the Pancaratras; bhagavate--also in Srimad-Bhagavatam; ei--these; laksana--symptoms; kaya--are described.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"These activities are called suddha-bhakti, pure devotional service. If one renders such pure devotional service, he develops his original love for Krsna in due course of time. In Vedic literatures like the Pancaratras and Srimad-Bhagavatam, these symptoms are described.

 

PURPORT

 

One has to develop his devotional service under the directions of a pure devotee, the spiritual master, and in accordance with the Vedic directions given in the Pancaratra and Bhagavatam systems. The Pancaratra system includes methods of temple worship, and the Bhagavatam system includes the spreading of Krsna conscious philosophy through the recitation of Srimad-Bhagavatam and the discussion of philosophy with people who are interested. Through discussion, one can create an interest and understanding of the Pancaratra and Bhagavatam systems.

 

TEXT 170

 

TEXT

 

sarvopadhi-vinirmuktam

tat-paratvena nirmalam

hrsikena hrsikesa-

sevanam bhaktir ucyate

 

SYNONYMS

 

sarva-upadhi-vinirmuktam--free from all kinds of material designations, or free from all desires except the desire to render service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tat-paratvena--by the sole purpose of serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nirmalam--uncontaminated by the effects of speculative philosophical research or fruitive activity; hrsikena--by purified senses freed from all designations; hrsikesa--of the master of the senses; sevanam--the service to satisfy the senses; bhaktih--devotional service; ucyate--is called.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'Bhakti, or devotional service, means engaging all our senses in the service of the Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all the senses. When the spirit soul renders service unto the Supreme, there are two side effects. One is freed from all material designations, and, simply by being employed in the service of the Lord, one's senses are purified.'

 

PURPORT

 

This verse quoted from the Narada-pancaratra is found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.1.12).

 

TEXT 171

 

TEXT

 

mad-guna-sruti-matrena

mayi sarva-guhasaye

manogatir avicchinna

yatha gangambhaso 'mbudhau

 

SYNONYMS

 

mat--of Me; guna--of the qualities; sruti-matrena--only by hearing; mayi--to Me; sarva-guha--in all hearts; asaye--who am situated; manah-gatih--the movement of the mind; avicchinna--unobstructed; yatha--just as; ganga-ambhasah--of the celestial waters of the Ganges; ambudhau--to the ocean.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'Just as the celestial waters of the Ganges flow unobstructed into the ocean, so when My devotees simply hear of Me, their minds come to Me. I reside in the hearts of all.

 

PURPORT

 

This verse and the following three verses quoted from Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.29.11-14), were spoken by Lord Krsna in the form of Kapiladeva.

 

TEXT 172

 

TEXT

 

laksanam bhakti-yogasya

nirgunasya hy udahrtam

ahaituky avyavahita

ya bhaktih purusottame

 

SYNONYMS

 

laksanam--the symptom; bhakti-yogasya--of devotional service; nirgunasya--beyond the three modes of nature; hi--certainly; udahrtam--is cited; ahaituki--causeless; avyavahita--uninterrupted; ya--which; bhaktih--devotional service; purusottame--to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'These are the characteristics of transcendental loving service to Purusottama, the Supreme Personality of Godhead: it is causeless, and it cannot be obstructed in any way.

 

TEXT 173

 

TEXT

 

salokya-sarsti-samipya-

sarupyaikatvam apy uta

diyamanam na grhnanti

vina mat-sevanam janah

 

SYNONYMS

 

salokya--being on the same planet as Me; sarsti--having opulence equal to Mine; samipya--having direct association with Me; sarupya--having the same form as Me; ekatvam--oneness with Me; api--even; uta--or; diyamanam--being given; na--not; grhnanti--accept; vina--without; mat-sevanam--My service; janah--the devotees.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'My devotees do not accept salokya, sarsti, sarupya, samipya or oneness with Me-even if I offer these liberations-in preference to serving Me.

 

TEXT 174

 

TEXT

 

sa eva bhakti-yogakhya

atyantika udahrtah

yenativrajya trigunam

mad-bhavayopapadyate

 

SYNONYMS

 

sah--that (having the above symptoms); eva--certainly; bhakti-yoga-akhyah--called bhakti-yoga; atyantikah--the ultimate goal of life; udahrtah--described as; yena--by which; ativrajya--transcending; tri-gunam--the three modes of material nature; mat-bhavaya--for direct touch with Me, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and My nature; upapadyate--one becomes qualified.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'Bhakti-yoga, as described above, is the ultimate goal of life. By rendering devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one transcends the modes of material nature and attains the spiritual position on the platform of direct devotional service'

 

TEXT 175

 

TEXT

 

bhukti-mukti adi-vancha yadi mane haya

sadhana karile prema utpanna na haya

 

SYNONYMS

 

bhukti--material enjoyment; mukti--to become liberated from material bondage; adi--and so on; vancha--desires; yadi--if; mane--in the mind; haya--are; sadhana karile--even executing devotional service according to the regulative routine; prema--real love of Krsna; utpanna--awakened; na--not; haya--is.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"If one is infected with the desire for material enjoyment or material liberation, he cannot rise to the platform of pure loving service unto the Lord, even though he may superficially render devotional service according to the routine regulative principles.

 

PURPORT

 

Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura mentions that if one maintains within his heart the desire to enjoy the result of good work, or, being embarrassed by the material world, the desire to get out of material entanglement, one will never be able to attain the transcendental mellows of devotional service. In other words, one must not desire material profit when rendering devotional service. Even if one follows all the sixty-four regulative principles, he cannot attain pure devotional service with a contaminated heart.

 

TEXT 176

 

TEXT

 

bhukti-mukti-sprha yavat

pisaci hrdi vartate

tavad bhakti-sukhasyatra

katham abhyudayo bhavet

 

SYNONYMS

 

bhukti--for material enjoyment; mukti--and for liberation from material existence; sprha--desire; yavat--as long as; pisaci--the witches; hrdi--within the heart; vartate--remain; tavat--that long; bhakti--of devotional service; sukhasya--of the happiness; atra--here; katham--how; abhyudayah--awakening; bhavet--can there be.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The material desire to enjoy the material world and the desire to become liberated from material bondage are considered to be two witches, and they haunt one like ghosts. As long as these witches remain within the heart, how can one feel transcendental bliss? As long as these two witches remain in the heart, there is no possibility of enjoying the transcendental bliss of devotional service.

 

PURPORT

 

This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.22).

 

TEXT 177

 

TEXT

 

sadhana-bhakti haite haya 'rati'ra udaya

rati gadha haile tara 'prema' nama kaya

 

SYNONYMS

 

sadhana-bhakti--the process of regularly rendering devotional service; haite--from; haya--there is; ratira--of attachment; udaya--the awakening; rati--such attachment; gadha haile--becoming thick; tara--of this; prema--love of Godhead; nama--the name; kaya--is said.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"By regularly rendering devotional service, one gradually becomes attached to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. When that attachment is intensified, it becomes love of Godhead.

 

PURPORT

 

Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.2.2) gives the following information about sadhana-bhakti:

 

krti-sadhya bhavet sadhya-

bhava sa sadhanabhidha

nitya-siddhasya bhavasya

prakatyam hrdi sadhyata

 

The process of devotional service-beginning with chanting and hearing-is called sadhana-bhakti. This includes the regulative principles that are intended to awaken one to devotional service. Devotional service is always dormant in everyone's heart, and by the offenseless chanting of the holy names of the Lord, one's original dormant Krsna consciousness is awakened. This awakening to Krsna consciousness is the beginning of sadhana-bhakti. This can be divided into many different parts, including faith, association with devotees, initiation by the spiritual master, engagement in devotional service under the instructions of a spiritual master, steadiness in devotional service and the awakening of a taste for devotional service. In this way, one can become attached to Krsna and His service, and when this attachment is intensified, it results in ecstatic love for Krsna. The word rati is explained in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.3.41) as follows:

 

vyaktam masrnatevantar-

laksyate rati-laksanam

mumuksu-prabhrtinam ced

bhaved esa ratir na hi

 

"When a tenderness of the heart is manifest, there is rati, or attachment. Those who are interested in being liberated from material bondage must manifest this tenderness called rati." This attachment is not like material attachment. When one is liberated from material contamination, the awakening of attachment for Krsna's service is called rati. In the material world there is attachment for material enjoyment, but this is not rati. Transcendental rati can be awakened only on the spiritual platform. Ecstatic love for Krsna (prema) is described in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1.41) as follows:

 

samyan masrnita-svanto

mamatvatisayankitah

bhavah sa eva sandratma

budhaih prema nigadyate

 

"When the heart is completely softened and devoid of all material desires and when one's emotional feelings become very strong, one becomes very much attached to Krsna. Such purified emotion is known as pure love."

 

TEXT 178

 

TEXT

 

prema vrddhi-krame nama----sneha, mana, pranaya

raga, anuraga, bhava, mahabhava haya

 

SYNONYMS

 

prema--ecstatic love for God; vrddhi-krame--in terms of progressive increase; nama--named; sneha--affection; mana--abhorrence; pranaya--love; raga--attachment; anuraga--further attachment; bhava--ecstasy; maha-bhava--great ecstasy; haya--are.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The basic aspects of prema, when gradually increasing to different states, are affection, abhorrence, love, attachment, further attachment, ecstasy and great ecstasy.

 

PURPORT

 

In the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (3.2.84) sneha (affection) is described as follows:

 

sandras citta-dravam kurvan

prema 'sneha' itiryate

ksanikasyapi neha syad

vislesasya sahisnuta

 

"That aspect of prema in which the melting of the heart for the lover is concentrated is called sneha, or affection. The symptom of such affection is that the lover cannot for a moment remain without the association of the beloved." A description of mana can be found in Madhya-lila (Chapter Two, verse 66). Similarly, a description of pranaya is also there. As far as raga is concerned, Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (3.2.87) says:

 

snehah sa rago yena syat

sukham duhkham api sphutam

tat-sambandha-lave 'py atra

pritih prana-vyayair api

 

"That stage at which affection for the beloved converts unhappiness into happiness is called raga, or attachment. When one has such attachment for Krsna, he can give up his own life to satisfy his beloved Krsna." Anuraga, bhava and mahabhava are described in the Sixth Chapter of Madhya-lila, verse 13. The purport to that verse explains adhirudha-mahabhava.

 

TEXT 179

 

TEXT

 

yaiche bija, iksu, rasa, guda, khanda-sara

sarkara, sita, michari, uttama-michari ara

 

SYNONYMS

 

yaiche--just like; bija--the seed; iksu--the sugarcane plant; rasa--the juice; guda--molasses; khanda-sara--dry molasses; sarkara--sugar; sita--candy; michari--rock candy; uttama-michari--lozenges; ara--and.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The gradual development of love may be compared to different states of sugar. First there is the seed of the sugarcane, then sugarcane and then the juice extracted from the cane. When this juice is boiled, it forms a liquid molasses, then a solid molasses, then sugar, candy, rock candy and finally lozenges.

 

TEXT 180

 

TEXT

 

ei saba krsna-bhakti-rasera sthayibhava

sthayibhave mile yadi vibhava, anubhava

 

SYNONYMS

 

ei saba--all these; krsna-bhakti--of devotional service to Krsna; rasera--of the mellows; sthayi-bhava--continuous existence; sthayi-bhave--in this continuous existence; mile--one meets; yadi--if; vibhava--special ecstasy; anubhava--subecstasy.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"All these stages combined are called sthayibhava, or continuous love of Godhead in devotional service. In addition to these stages, there are vibhava and anubhava.

 

PURPORT

 

Attachment for Krsna never wanes; it increases more and more as one attains different stages. All the stages together are called sthayibhava, or continuous existence. The nine forms of devotional service are sravanam kirtanam visnoh smaranam pada-sevanam arcanam vandanam dasyam sakhyam atma-nivedanam. When continuous love of Godhead is mixed with the processes of devotional service, it is called vibhava, anubhava, sattvika and vyabhicari. The devotee thus enjoys a variety of transcendental bliss. In his Amrta-pravaha-bhasya, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura states that anubhava can be divided into thirteen categories: (1) dancing, (2) rolling on the ground, (3) singing, (4) yelling, (5) jumping, (6) making loud noises, (7) yawning, (8) heavy breathing, (9) not caring for public opinion, (10) discharging saliva, (11) roaring laughter, (12) unsteadiness and (13) hiccupping. These are the symptoms of anubhava. Thus the transcendental mellows are experienced in different stages. Similarly, there are many other forms of expression that have been analytically studied by the Gosvamis. In the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, Rupa Gosvami gives each and every symptom a particular name.

 

TEXT 181

 

TEXT

 

sattvika-vyabhicari-bhavera milane

krsna-bhakti-rasa haya amrta asvadane

 

SYNONYMS

 

sattvika-vyabhicari-bhavera--of sattvika and vyabhicari with sthayibhava; milane--by mixing; krsna-bhakti-rasa--the transcendental mellows of devotional service to the Lord; haya--become; amrta--nectarean; asvadane--in tasting.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"When the higher standard of ecstatic love is mixed with the symptoms of sattvika and vyabhicari, the devotee relishes the transcendental bliss of loving Krsna in a variety of nectarean tastes.

 

TEXT 182

 

TEXT

 

yaiche dadhi, sita, ghrta, marica, karpura

milane,rasala' haya amrta madhura

 

SYNONYMS

 

yaiche--just as; dadhi--yogurt; sita--sugar candy; ghrta--clarified butter; marica--black pepper; karpura--camphor; milane--in mixing together; rasala--very tasteful; haya--becomes; amrta--nectarean; madhura--and sweet.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"These tastes are like a combination of yogurt, sugar candy, ghee [clarified butter], black pepper and camphor and are as palatable as sweet nectar.

 

TEXTS 183-184

 

TEXT

 

bhakta-bhede rati-bheda panca parakara

santa-rati, dasya-rati, sakhya-rati ara

 

vatsalya-rati, madhura-rati,----ei panca vibheda

rati-bhede krsna-bhakti-rase panca bheda

 

SYNONYMS

 

bhakta-bhede--according to varieties of devotees; rati-bheda--the different attachments; panca parakara--five categories; santi-rati--neutral appreciation; dasya-rati--attachment in a service attitude; sakhya-rati--attachment by friendly appreciation; ara--also; vatsalya-rati--attachment by paternal affection; madhura-rati--attachment by conjugal love; ei--these; panca--five; vibheda--divisions; rati-bhede--by attachment on different platforms; krsna-bhakti-rase--in mellows derived from devotional service to Krsna; panca--five; bheda--varieties.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"According to the devotee, attachment falls within the five categories of santa-rati, dasya-rati, sakhya-rati, vatsalya-rati and madhura-rati. These five categories arise from the devotees' different attachments to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The transcendental mellows derived from devotional service are also of five varieties.

 

PURPORT

 

Santa-rati is described in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.5.16, 17, 18) as follows:

 

manase nirvikalpatvam

sama ity abhidhiyate

 

"When one is completely free from all doubts and material attachments, he attains the neutral position called santa."

 

vihaya visayonmukhyam

nijananda-sthitir yatah

atmanah kathyate so 'tra

svabhavah sama ity asau

 

prayah sama-pradhananam

mamata-gandha-varjita

paramatmataya krsne

jata santa-ratir mata

 

The santa-rati realization of Krsna is in the neutral stage between the conception of impersonalism and personalism. This means that one is not very strongly attached to the personal feature of the Lord. An appreciation of the greatness of the Lord is called santa-rati. This is attachment not to the personal feature but to the impersonal feature. Generally, one in this stage is attached to the Paramatma feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

isvarah sarva-bhutanam

hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati

bhramayan sarva-bhutani

yantrarudhani mayaya

 

"The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone's heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine, made of the material energy." (Bg. 18.61)

On the strength of this statement from Bhagavad-gita, we can understand that in the santa-rasa, a devotee sees the Lord's representation everywhere. Dasya-rati is explained in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.5.27) thus:

 

svasmad bhavanti ye nyunas

te 'nugrahya harer matah

aradhyatvatmika tesam

ratih pritir itirita

tatrasaktikrd anyatra

priti-samharini hy asau

 

When the Supreme Lord in His localized aspect is appreciated and a great devotee understands his subordinate position, not only does he surrender to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but, due to his subordinate position, he wishes to render some service and thus become favored by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. A devotee in the santa-rati is not very much willing to render service to the Lord, but a devotee in the dasya-rati voluntarily wants to render service. Due to this attitude, the devotee in the dasya-rati realizes the Supreme Personality of Godhead more fully than a devotee in the santa-rati. He considers the Lord to be a worshipable object, and this means that his attachment for the Lord increases. On the dasya-rati platform a devotee is attached to rendering service to the Lord, and he is detached from material activities. The santa-rati is neither material nor spiritual, but the dasya-rati is actually on the spiritual platform. There is no attachment for material things on the spiritual platform. A devotee in dasya-rati has no attachment for anything but Krsna's service.

Sakhya-rati is described in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.5.30) as follows:

 

ye syus tulya mukundasya

te sakhayah satam matah

samyad visrambha-rupaisam

ratih sakhyam ihocyate

 

According to the opinion of advanced devotees and learned scholars, a devotee in sakhya-rati feels equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is a relationship in friendship. Due to having a friendly relationship with the Lord, not only is one free from material attachment, but one believes in equal dealings with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is called sakhya-rati. The sakhya-rati devotee is so advanced that he treats the Lord on an equal level and even exchanges joking words. Although one is never equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the sakhya-rati devotee feels equal to the Lord, and he does not feel guilty because of this. Actually it is offensive to consider oneself equal to the Lord. The Mayavadis consider themselves equal to the Lord, but such feelings entail bereavement because they are material. The sakhya-rati, however, is a feeling experienced in the mind by a pure devotee, and he is eternally related with the Supreme Personality of Godhead in that feeling.

Vatsalya-rati is described as follows in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.5.33):

 

guravo ye harer asya

te pujya iti visrutah

anugrahamayi tesam

ratir vatsalyam ucyate

idam lalana-bhavyasis

cibuka-sparsanadi-krt

 

When a living entity is situated on the platform of vatsalya-rati, he thinks of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His childhood feature. In this feature, the Lord has to be protected by the devotee, and at this time the devotee takes the position of being worshiped by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The feelings of paternal love are called vatsalya-rati. When the devotee is situated on this platform, he wants to maintain the Lord like a son, and he desires all good fortune for the Lord. He offers blessings to the Lord by touching His feet and head.

Madhura-rati, or attachment in conjugal love, is described as follows:

 

mitho harer mrgaksyas ca

sambhogasyadi-karanam

madhurapara-paryaya

priyatakhyodita ratih

asyam kataksa-bhruksepa-

priya-vani-smitadayah

 

The conjugal relationship is experienced between the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the young damsels of Vrajabhumi, and due to their conjugal love they continuously exist in eight kinds of remembrances called madhura-rati. This intimate relationship brought about by conjugal love produces movements of the eyebrows, glancing, sweet words and exchanges of joking words.

 

TEXT 185

 

TEXT

 

santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, madhura-rasa nama

krsna-bhakti-rasa-madhye e panca pradhana

 

SYNONYMS

 

santa--neutrality; dasya--servitude; sakhya--friendship; vatsalya--paternal affection; madhura-rasa--conjugal love; nama--different names; krsna-bhakti--of devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; rasa--the mellows; madhye--among; e--these; panca--five; pradhana--chief.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The chief transcendental mellows experienced with the Supreme Personality of Godhead are five-santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhura.

 

TEXT 186

 

TEXT

 

hasyo 'dbhutas tatha virah

karuno raudra ity api

bhayanakah sa bibhatsa

iti gaunas ca saptadha

 

SYNONYMS

 

hasyah--laughter; adbhutah--wonder; tatha--then; virah--chivalry; karunah--compassion; raudrah--anger; iti--thus; api--also; bhayanakah--fear; sah--that; bibhatsah--disaster; iti--thus; gaunah--indirect; ca--also; sapta-dha--seven kinds.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Besides the five direct mellows, there are seven indirect mellows, known as laughter, wonder, chivalry, compassion, anger, disaster and fear.

 

PURPORT

 

This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2.5.116).

 

TEXT 187

 

TEXT

 

hasya, adbhuta, vira, karuna, raudra, bibhatsa, bhaya

panca-vidha-bhakte gauna sapta-rasa haya

 

SYNONYMS

 

hasya--laughter; adbhuta--wonder; vira--chivalry; karuna--pathetic feeling; raudra--anger; bibhatsa--disaster; bhaya--fearfulness; panca-vidha-bhakte--in five kinds of devotees; gauna--indirect; sapta-rasa--seven kinds of mellows; haya--there are.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"In addition to the five direct mellows, there are seven indirect mellows, known as laughter, wonder, chivalry, compassion, anger, disaster and fear.

 

PURPORT

 

Santa-bhakti-rasa is described in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (3.1.4, 5, 6)as follows:

 

vaksyamanair vibhavadyaih

saminam svadyatam gatah

sthayi santi-ratir dhiraih

santa-bhakti-rasah smrtah

 

prayah svasukha-jatiyam

sukham syad atra yoginam

kintv atma-saukhyam aghanam

ghanam tv isam ayam sukham

tatrapisa-svarupanubhavasyaivoru-hetuta

dasadi-van-mano-jnatva-lilader na tatha mata

 

When santa-rati (neutral attraction) is continuously existent and mixed with ecstatic emotion, and when the devotee relishes that neutral position, it is called santa-bhakti-rasa. Santa-bhakti-rasa devotees generally relish the impersonal feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Since their taste of transcendental bliss is incomplete, it is called aghana, or not concentrated. A comparison is made between ordinary milk and concentrated milk. When the same devotee goes beyond the impersonal and tastes the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His original form as sac-cid-ananda-vigraha, the taste is called concentrated (ghana) transcendental bliss. Sometimes the devotees in the santa-rasa relish transcendental bliss after meeting the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but this is not comparable to the transcendental bliss relished by the devotees situated in dasya-rasa, the transcendental mellow in which one renders service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Dasya-rasa, or dasya-bhakti-rasa, is described in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (3.2.4,5) as follows:

 

atmocitair vibhavadyaih

pritir asvadaniyatam

nita cetasi bhaktanam

priti-bhakti-raso matah

 

anugrahyasya dasatval

lalyatvad apy ayam dvidha

bhidyate sambhrama-prito

gaurava-prita ity api

 

When according to the desires of the spirit soul the living entity develops love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, this beginning of love is called dasya-bhakti-rasa. Dasya-bhakti-rasa is divided into two categories called sambhrama-dasya and gaurava-dasya. In the sambhrama-dasya, the devotee renders respectful service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but in the more advanced gaurava-dasya, his service takes the form of giving protection to the Lord.

Sakhya-bhakti-rasa is described as follows in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (3.3.1):

 

sthayibhavo vibhavadyaih

sakhyam atmocitair iha

nitas citte satam pustim

rasah preyanudiryate

 

"According to one's original consciousness, ecstatic emotions are exhibited as continuously existing in eternity. When this stage of Krsna consciousness is mature, it is called preyo-rasa or sakhya-bhakti-rasa."

Vatsalya-bhakti-rasa is described in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (3.4.1) as follows:

 

vibhavadyais tu vatsalyam

sthayi pustim upagatah

esa vatsala-namatra

prokto bhakti-raso budhaih

 

"When eternally existing love of Godhead transforms into paternal love and is mixed with corresponding emotions, that stage of spiritual existence is described by learned devotees as vatsalya-bhakti-rasa."

Madhura-bhakti-rasa is described in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (3.5.1) as follows:

 

atmocitair vibhavadyaih

pustim nita satam hrdi

madhurakhyo bhaved bhaktir

aso 'sau madhura ratih

 

"If in accordance with one's own natural development in Krsna consciousness one's attraction leans toward conjugal love within the heart, that is called attachment in conjugal love, or madhura-rasa."

Similarly, hasya, adbhuta, vira, karuna, raudra, bhaya and bibhatsa-the seven indirect mellows-are explained in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu. The hasya-bhakti-rasa, laughing devotion, is explained as follows (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 4.1.6):

 

vaksyamanair vibhavadyaih

pustim hasa-ratir gata

hasya-bhakti-raso nama

budhair esa nigadyate

 

"When through devotional service a laughing attachment to Krsna is developed, it is called hasya-bhakti-rasa by learned scholars."

Similarly, adbhuta-rasa is described in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (4.2.1):

 

atmocitair vibhavadyaih

svadyatvam bhakta-cetasi

sa vismaya-ratir nitad-

bhuto-bhakti-raso bhavet

 

"When one's general attachment is fixed in wonder, it is called adbhuta-bhakti-rasa."

Vira-bhakti-rasa is described (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 4.3.1):

 

saivotsaha-ratih sthayi

vibhavadyair nijocitah

aniyamana svadyatvam

vira-bhakti-raso bhavet

yuddha-dana-daya-dharmais

caturdha-vira ucyate

 

"When attachment to Krsna mixes with the bellicose tendency, the charitable tendency or the merciful tendency in the heart of the devotee, such devotion is called vira-bhakti-rasa."

Karuna-bhakti-rasa is described as follows (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 4.4.1):

 

atmocitair vibhavadyair

nita pustim satam hrdi

bhavec choka-ratir bhakti-

raso hi karunabhidhah

 

"When one's devotional attitude and attachment for Krsna is mixed with lamentation, it is called karuna-bhakti-rasa."

Similarly, raudra-bhakti-rasa is described as follows (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 4.5.1):

 

nita krodha-ratih pustim

vibhavadyair nijocitaih

hrdi bhakta-janasyasau

raudra-bhakti-raso bhavet

 

"When devotion is mixed with anger in the heart of the devotee, the taste is called raudra-bhakti-rasa."

Bhayanaka-bhakti-rasa is described as follows (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 4.6.1):

 

vaksyamanair vibhavadyaih

pustim bhaya-ratir gata

bhayanakabhidho bhakti-

raso dhirair udiryate

 

"When devotion is mixed with fear, it is called bhayanaka-bhakti-rasa."

Bibhatsa-bhakti-rasa is described as follows (Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 4.7.1):

 

pustim nija-vibhavadyair

jugupsa-ratir agata

asau bhakti-raso dhirair

bibhatsakhya itiryate

 

"When one's attachment for Krsna develops in an abominable way, and the devotee enjoys it, that is called bibhatsa-bhakti-rasa."

In conclusion, when a pure devotee is situated in any of the five principal mellows (santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhura), and the mellow is mixed with the seven indirect bhakti-rasas (hasya, adbhuta, vira, karuna, raudra, bhayanaka and bibhatsa), the indirect mellows become prominent.

 

TEXT 188

 

TEXT

 

panca-rasa 'sthayi' vyapi rahe bhakta-mane

sapta gauna 'agantuka' paiye karane

 

SYNONYMS

 

panca-rasa--five direct transcendental mellows; sthayi--permanently existing; vyapi--expanded; rahe--remain situated; bhakta-mane--in the heart of a devotee; sapta gauna--seven indirect mellows; agantuka--accidental; paiye--appearing; karane--under certain conditions.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The five direct transcendental mellows of devotional service are permanently situated in the heart of the devotee, whereas the seven indirect emotions appear suddenly under certain conditions and appear more powerful.

 

TEXT 189

 

TEXT

 

santa-bhakta----nava-yogendra, sanakadi ara

dasya-bhava-bhakta----sarvatra sevaka apara

 

SYNONYMS

 

santa-bhakta--the neutral devotees; nava--nine; yogendra--saintly persons; sanaka-adi ara--and the four Kumaras, headed by Sanaka; dasya-bhava-bhakta--devotees in dasya-rasa; sarvatra sevaka apara--similar innumerable servants everywhere.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Examples of santa-bhaktas are the nine Yogendras and the four Kumaras. Examples of devotees in dasya-bhakti are innumerable, for such devotees exist everywhere.

 

PURPORT

 

The nine Yogendras are Kavi, Havi, Antariksa, Prabuddha, Pippalayana, Avirhotra, Dravida (Drumila), Camasa and Karabhajana. The four Kumaras are Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanat-kumara and Sanatana. The servant devotees in Gokula are Raktaka, Citraka, Patraka and so on. In Dvaraka there are servants like Daruka, and in the Lord's pastimes in the material world there are servants like Hanuman.

 

TEXT 190

 

TEXT

 

sakhya-bhakta----sridamadi, pure bhimarjuna

vatsalya-bhakta----mata pita, yata guru-jana

 

SYNONYMS

 

sakhya-bhakta--devotees in fraternity; sridama-adi--of Sridama and others; pure--in Dvaraka; bhima-arjuna--Bhima and Arjuna; vatsalya-bhakta--devotees in parental love; mata pita--the mother and father; yata guru-jana--all other similarly superior persons.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"In Vrndavana, examples of devotees in fraternity are Sridama and Sudama; in Dvaraka the Lord's friends are Bhima and Arjuna; in Vrndavana the devotees in parental love are mother Yasoda and father Nanda Maharaja, and in Dvaraka the Lord's parents are Vasudeva and Devaki. There are also other superior persons who are devotees in parental love.

 

TEXT 191

 

TEXT

 

madhura-rase bhakta-mukhya----vraje gopi-gana

mahisi-gana, laksmi-gana, asankhya ganana

 

SYNONYMS

 

madhura-rase--in the mellow of conjugal love; bhakta-mukhya--the chief devotees; vraje--in Vrndavana; gopi-gana--the gopis; mahisi-gana--the queens in Dvaraka; laksmi-gana--the goddesses of fortune in Vaikuntha; asankhya ganana--of innumerable reckoning.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The chief devotees in conjugal love are the gopis in Vrndavana, the queens in Dvaraka and the goddesses of fortune in Vaikuntha. These devotees are innumerable.

 

TEXT 192

 

TEXT

 

punah krsna-rati haya duita prakara

aisvarya-jnana-misra, kevala-bheda ara

 

SYNONYMS

 

punah--again; krsna-rati--attachment for Krsna; haya--becomes; duita--twofold; prakara--varieties; aisvarya-jnana-misra--knowledge of Krsna mixed with a reverential attitude; kevala--pure attachment; bheda--division; ara--other.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Attachment for Krsna is divided into two categories. One is attachment with awe and reverence, and the other is pure attachment without reverence.

 

TEXT 193

 

TEXT

 

gokule 'kevala' rati----aisvarya-jnana-hina

puri-dvaye, vaikunthadye----aisvarya-pravina

 

SYNONYMS

 

gokule--in Gokula Vrndavana; kevala rati--flawless attachment; aisvarya-jnana-hina--without reverential considerations; puri-dvaye--in two puris, namely Mathura Puri and Dvaraka Puri; vaikuntha-adye--in the Vaikuntha planets; aisvarya-pravina--prominence of awe and reverence.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Pure attachment without reverence is found in Goloka Vrndavana. Attachment in which awe and reverence are prominent is found in the two cities Mathura and Dvaraka and in Vaikuntha.

 

TEXT 194

 

TEXT

 

aisvarya-jnana-pradhanye sankucita priti

dekhiya na mane aisvarya----kevalara riti

 

SYNONYMS

 

aisvarya-jnana-pradhanye--in the predominance of awe and veneration; sankucita--crippled; priti--love; dekhiya--seeing; na mane--does not care; aisvarya--opulence; kevalara riti--that is the symptom of pure devotional service.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"When opulence is very prominent, love of Godhead is somewhat crippled. According to kevala devotion, however, even though the devotee sees the unlimited potency of Krsna, he considers himself equal with Him.

 

TEXT 195

 

TEXT

 

santa-dasya-rase aisvarya kahan uddipana

vatsalya-sakhya-madhure ta' kare sankocana

 

SYNONYMS

 

santa-dasya-rase--in the transcendental mellows of neutrality and servitude; aisvarya--opulence; kahan--somewhere; uddipana--manifested; vatsalya-sakhya-madhure--in fraternal love, paternity and conjugal love; ta'--certainly; kare--does; sankocana--minimizing.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"On the transcendental platform of neutrality and service, sometimes the opulence of the Lord is prominent. However, in the transcendental mellows of fraternal, paternal and conjugal love, the opulence is minimized.

 

TEXT 196

 

TEXT

 

vasudeva-devakira krsna carana vandila

aisvarya-jnane dunhara mane bhaya haila

 

SYNONYMS

 

vasudeva-devakira--of Vasudeva and Devaki; krsna--Lord Krsna; carana--to the lotus feet; vandila--offered prayers; aisvarya-jnane--because of knowledge of the opulence; dunhara--of both of them; mane--in the minds; bhaya haila--there was fear.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"When Krsna offered prayers at the lotus feet of His mother and father, Vasudeva and Devaki, they both felt awe, reverence and fear due to knowledge of His opulences.

 

TEXT 197

 

TEXT

 

devaki vasudevas ca

vijnaya jagad-isvarau

krta-samvandanau putrau

sasvajate na sankitau

 

SYNONYMS

 

devaki--Devaki; vasudevah--Vasudeva; ca--and; vijnaya--understanding; jagat-isvarau--the two Lords of the universe; krta-samvandanau--having paid obeisances; putrau--the two sons Krsna and Balarama; sasvajate--embraced; na--not; sankitau--being frightened.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'When Devaki and Vasudeva understood that their two sons Krsna and Balarama, who had paid obeisances to them, were the Supreme Personality of Godhead, they became fearful and did not embrace Them.'

 

PURPORT

 

This verse quoted from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.44.51) refers to the killing of Kamsa by Krsna and Balarama. Vasudeva and Devaki saw their son kill the powerful demon Kamsa, and after this they were immediately released from their shackles. Balarama and Krsna then offered respects to Devaki and Vasudeva. Both father and mother wanted to embrace their sons, but they understood that Krsna and Balarama were the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and they therefore hesitated to embrace Them. Their parental love for Krsna and Balarama was therefore hampered and decreased by awe and reverence.

 

TEXT 198

 

TEXT

 

krsnera visva-rupa dekhi' arjunera haila bhaya

sakhya-bhave dharstya ksamapaya kariya vinaya

 

SYNONYMS

 

krsnera--of Lord Krsna; visva-rupa--the universal form; dekhi'--seeing; arjunera--of Arjuna; haila bhaya--there was fear; sakhya-bhave--as a friend; dharstya--impudence; ksamapaya--begs pardon for; kariya--showing; vinaya--submission.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"When Krsna manifested His universal form, Arjuna became reverent and fearful, and he begged forgiveness for his past impudence toward Krsna as a friend.

 

TEXTS 199-200

 

TEXT

 

sakheti matva prasabham yad uktam

he krsna he yadava he sakheti

ajanata mahimanam tavedam

maya pramadat pranayena vapi

 

yac cavahasartham asat-krto 'si

vihara-sayyasana-bhojanesu

eko 'thavapy acyuta tat-samaksam

tat ksamaye tvam aham aprameyam

 

SYNONYMS

 

sakha--friend; iti--thus; matva--thinking; prasabham--forcibly; yat--that which; uktam--was said; he krsna--O Krsna; he yadava--O descendant of Yadu; he sakha--O my dear friend; iti--thus; ajanata--without knowing; mahimanam--greatness; tava--Your; idam--this; maya--by me; pramadat--out of ignorance; pranayena--out of affection; va--or; api--certainly; yat--whatever; ca--and; avahasa-artham--for the matter of joking; asat-krtah--insulted; asi--You are; vihara--while enjoying; sayya-asana--sitting or lying on the bed; bhojanesu--while eating together; ekah--alone; athava--or; api--certainly; acyuta--O my dear Krsna; tat-samaksam--in the presence of others; tat--all those; ksamaye--ask pardon; tvam--unto You; aham--I; aprameyam--who are unlimited.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'I have in the past addressed You as "O Krsna," "O Yadava," "O my friend" without knowing Your glories. Please forgive whatever I have done in madness or in love. I have dishonored You many times while we were relaxing, lying on the same bed or eating together, sometimes alone and sometimes in front of many friends. Please excuse me for all my offenses.'

 

PURPORT

 

This is a quotation from Bhagavad-gita (11.41-42). In this verse, Arjuna is addressing Krsna, who was exhibiting His universal form on the Battlefield of Kuruksetra.

 

TEXT 201

 

TEXT

 

krsna yadi rukminire kaila parihasa

'krsna chadibena'----jani' rukminira haila trasa

 

SYNONYMS

 

krsna--Lord Krsna; yadi--although; rukminire--unto Rukmini, the first queen; kaila--did; parihasa--joking; krsna--Lord Krsna; chadibena--will give me up; jani'--thinking; rukminira--of Rukmini; haila--there was; trasa--shock.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Although Krsna was joking with Queen Rukmini, she was thinking that He was going to give up her company, and she was therefore shocked.

 

TEXT 202

 

TEXT

 

tasyah suduhkha-bhaya-soka-vinasta-buddher

hastac chlathad-valayato vyajanam papata

dehas ca viklava-dhiyah sahasaiva muhyan

rambheva vata-vihata pravikirya kesan

 

SYNONYMS

 

tasyah--of her; su-duhkha-bhaya--due to great distress and fear; soka--and lamentation; vinasta--lost; buddheh--whose intelligence; hastat--from the hand; slathat--being loose; valayatah--bangles; vyajanam--the fan; papata--fell down; dehah--body; ca--also; viklava--paralyzed by fear; dhiyah--whose understanding; sahasa eva--suddenly; muhyan--fainting; rambha iva--like a banana tree; vata-vihata--dashed by a high wind; pravikirya--scattering; kesan--the hair.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'While Krsna was joking with Rukmini in Dvaraka, she was full of distress, fear and lamentation. She had also lost her intelligence. She dropped her hand bangles and the fan she was using to fan the Lord. Her hair became disarrayed, and she fainted and fell suddenly, appearing like a banana tree knocked down by high winds.'

 

PURPORT

 

This verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.60.24) refers to Krsna's speaking to Rukmini in His bedroom. Just to test her sincerity, He began to joke with her, presenting Himself as poor, incapable and unfit to be her lover. Not understanding that He was joking, Rukmini took Him seriously and thought that He wanted to leave her company. This misunderstanding made her very unhappy, and her whole body was affected. Her fan and bangles fell to the floor, and she also fell down like a banana tree knocked down by high winds.

 

TEXT 203

 

TEXT

 

'kevala'ra suddha-prema 'aisvarya' na jane

aisvarya dekhileo nija-sambandha se mane

 

SYNONYMS

 

kevalara--of unmixed attraction for Krsna; suddha-prema--unalloyed love; aisvarya--opulence; na jane--does not know; aisvarya--opulence; dekhileo--in spite of experiencing; nija-sambandha--one's own relationship with Krsna; se mane--he takes very seriously.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"In the stage of kevala [unalloyed devotion] a devotee does not consider the unlimited opulence of Krsna, even though he experiences it. He takes seriously only his own relationship with Krsna.

 

PURPORT

 

When a devotee reaches the stage of pure unalloyed devotion, especially in friendship with Krsna, he forgets the Lord's opulences, although he sees them, and he considers himself equal to Krsna. There is no question of actually comparing oneself to Krsna, but because the devotee is so advanced in Krsna consciousness, he is able to behave with Krsna as he would with an ordinary man.

 

TEXT 204

 

TEXT

 

trayya copanisadbhis ca

sankhya-yogais ca satvataih

upagiyamana-mahatmyam

harim sa 'manyatatmajam

 

SYNONYMS

 

trayya--by followers of three Vedas who perform great sacrifices (like the demigod Indra); ca--also; upanisadbhih--by the followers of the Upanisads, the most exalted portion of Vedic knowledge (as Brahman); ca--also; sankhya--by the philosophers who analytically study the universe (as the purusa); yogaih--by mystic yogis (as the Paramatma situated everywhere); ca--and; satvataih--by devotees who follow the method of worship mentioned in the Pancaratra and other Vedic literature (as Bhagavan); upagiyamana--being sung; mahatmyam--whose glories; harim--unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sa--she (mother Yasoda); amanyata--considered; atma-jam--as her own son, born of her body.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'When mother Yasoda saw all the universes within Krsna's mouth, she was astonished for the time being. The Lord is worshiped like Indra and other demigods by the followers of the three Vedas, who offer Him sacrifices. He is worshiped as impersonal Brahman by saintly persons who understand His greatness through studying the Upanisads, as the purusa by great philosophers who analytically study the universe, as the all-pervading Supersoul by great yogis, and as the Supreme Personality of Godhead by devotees. Nevertheless, mother Yasoda considered the Lord her own son.'

 

PURPORT

 

This verse is quoted from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.45). Those who are spiritually advanced forget Krsna's opulence by the mercy of yogamaya. For instance, mother Yasoda considered Krsna an ordinary child.

 

TEXT 205

 

TEXT

 

tam matvatmajam avyaktam

martya-lingam adhoksajam

gopikolukhale damna

babandha prakrtam yatha

 

SYNONYMS

 

tam--Him (Krsna); matva--considering; atmajam--own son; avyaktam--unmanifested; martya-lingam--manifested as if perishable; adhoksajam--beyond the perception of the senses; gopika--mother Yasoda; ulukhale--to the mortar; damna--with rope; babandha--bound; prakrtam--an ordinary child; yatha--like.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'Although Krsna is beyond sense perception and is unmanifest to human beings, he takes up the guise of a human being with a material body. Thus mother Yasoda thought Him to be her son, and she bound Lord Krsna with rope to a wooden mortar, as if He were an ordinary child.'

 

PURPORT

 

This verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.9.14) is in reference to Lord Krsna's exhibiting Himself like an ordinary child before mother Yasoda. He was playing like a naughty boy stealing butter and breaking butter pots. Mother Yasoda became disturbed and wanted to bind the Lord to a mortar used for pounding spices. In other words, she considered the Supreme Personality of Godhead an ordinary child.

 

TEXT 206

 

TEXT

 

uvaha krsno bhagavan

sridamanam parajitah

vrsabham bhadrasenas tu

pralambo rohini-sutam

 

SYNONYMS

 

uvaha--carried; krsnah--Lord Krsna; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sridamanam--Sridama; parajitah--being defeated; vrsabham--Vrsabha; bhadrasenah--Bhadrasena; tu--and; pralambah--Pralamba; rohini-sutam--Balarama.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'When Krsna was defeated by Sridama, He had to carry him on His shoulders. Similarly, Bhadrasena carried Vrsabha, and Pralamba carried Balarama, the son of Rohini.'

 

PURPORT

 

This verse is from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.18.24). When all the cowherd boys were playing in the forest of Vrndavana, the demon Pralambasura appeared to kidnap Krsna and Balarama. The asura appeared disguised in the form of a cowherd boy, but Krsna could understand his trick. Krsna therefore divided all the cowherd boys into two parties. One party belonged to Balarama, and the other party belonged to Krsna Himself. Ultimately Krsna was defeated in this play, and according to the wager, the defeated party had to carry the victorious party on their shoulders. Krsna had to carry Sridama on His shoulders, and Bhadrasena had to carry Vrsabha. The demon Pralambasura had to carry Balarama, and when Balarama mounted his shoulders, the demon ran far away. Finally the demon began to expand his body to a gigantic size, and Balarama understood that he intended to kill Him. Balarama immediately struck the demon's head with His strong fist, and the demon fell down dead as if he were a snake whose head had been smashed.

 

TEXTS 207-209

 

TEXT

 

sa ca mene tadatmanam

varistham sarva-yositam

hitva gopih kamayana

mam asau bhajate priyah

 

tato gatva vanoddesam

drpta kesavam abravit

na paraye 'ham calitum

naya mam yatra te manah

 

evam uktah priyam aha

skandham aruhyatam iti

tatas cantardadhe krsnah

sa vadhur anvatapyata

 

SYNONYMS

 

sa--Srimati Radharani; ca--also; mene--considered; tada--at that time; atmanam--Herself; varistham--the most glorious; sarva-yositam--among all the gopis; hitva--giving up; gopih--all the other gopis; kamayanah--who were desiring the company of Krsna; mam--Me; asau--that Sri Krsna; bhajate--worships; priyah--the most dear; tatah--thereafter; gatva--going; vana-uddesam--to the deep forest; drpta--being very proud; kesavam--unto Krsna; abravit--said; na paraye--am unable; aham--I; calitum--to walk; naya--just carry; mam--Me; yatra--wherever; te--Your; manah--mind; evam uktah--thus being ordered by Srimati Radharani; priyam--to this most dear gopi; aha--said; skandham--My shoulders; aruhyatam--please get on; iti--thus; tatah--thereafter; ca--also; antardadhe--disappeared; krsnah--Lord Krsna; sa--Srimati Radharani; vadhuh--the gopi; anvatapyata--began to lament.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" ' "My dearmost Krsna, You are worshiping Me and giving up the company of all the other gopis who wanted to enjoy themselves with You." Thinking like this, Srimati Radharani considered Herself Krsna's most beloved gopi. She had become proud and had left the rasa-lila with Krsna. In the deep forest She said, "My dear Krsna, I cannot walk any more. You can take Me wherever You like." When Srimati Radharani petitioned Krsna in this way, Krsna said, "Just get up upon My shoulders." As soon as Srimati Radharani began to do so, He disappeared. Srimati Radharani then began to grieve over Her request and Krsna's disappearance.'

 

PURPORT

 

These three verses are quoted from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.30.36-38).

 

TEXT 210

 

TEXT

 

pati-sutanvaya-bhratr-bandhavan

ativilanghya te 'nty acyutagatah

gatividas tavodgita-mohitah

kitava yositah kas tyajen nisi

 

SYNONYMS

 

pati--husbands; suta--sons; anvaya--family; bhratr--brothers; bandhavan--friends; ativilanghya--without caring for; te--Your; anti--dear shelter; acyuta--O infallible one; agatah--have come; gati-vidah--who know everything of our activities; tava--of You; udgita--by the singing flute; mohitah--being attracted; kitava--O great cheater; yositah--beautiful women; kah--who; tyajet--would give up; nisi--in the dead of night.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'Dear Krsna, neglecting the order of our husbands and sons, family, brothers and friends and leaving their company, we gopis have come to You. You know everything about our desires. We have only come because we are attracted by Your supremely musical flute. However, You are a great cheater. Who else would give up the company of young girls like us in the dead of night?'

 

PURPORT

 

This verse, quoted from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.31.16), describes how the gopis exposed themselves for Krsna's enjoyment in the dead of night. The gopis approached Krsna to enjoy themselves with Him in the rasa dance. Krsna knew this very well, but He was superficially trying to avoid them. He is therefore addressed by the gopis as kitava, a great cheater, because He first attracted them to come dance with Him, and yet when they actually came, neglecting the orders of their friends and relatives, He tried to avoid them by giving them good instructions. These cunning instructions were too much for the gopis to tolerate; they therefore had a right to address Krsna as kitava, a great cheater. They were all young girls, and they had come to Him to be enjoyed. How could He avoid them? The gopis therefore expressed great disappointment in this verse. They came voluntarily, but Krsna was so cunning that He wanted to avoid their company. The gopis' lamentation was certainly very appropriate, and in this way Krsna tested their sincerity.

 

TEXT 211

 

TEXT

 

santa-rase----'svarupa-buddhye krsnaika-nisthata'

"samo man-nisthata buddheh" iti sri-mukha-gatha

 

SYNONYMS

 

santa-rase--on the stage of santa-rasa, or neutrality; svarupa-buddhye--by self-realization; krsna-eka-nisthata--fully devoted to the lotus feet of Krsna; samah--equilibrium; mat--to Me; nisthata--the quality of attachment; buddheh--of the mind; iti--thus; sri-mukha--from the mouth of the Supreme Lord; gatha--a verse.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"When one is fully attached to Krsna's lotus feet, one attains the samata stage. The word samata is derived from the word sama; therefore santa-rasa, the position of neutrality, means being fully attached to the lotus feet of Krsna. This is the verdict from the mouth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. This state is called self-realization.

 

PURPORT

 

The word sama is explained by the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the following verse.

 

TEXT 212

 

TEXT

 

samo man-nisthata buddher

iti sri-bhagavad-vacah

tan-nistha durghata buddher

etam santa-ratim vina

 

SYNONYMS

 

samah--equality or neutrality; mat-nisthata--being fixed in My lotus feet; buddheh--of the intelligence; iti--thus; sri-bhagavat-vacah--words of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tat-nistha--attachment or attraction for Him; durghata--very difficult to achieve; buddheh--of intelligence; etam--thus; santa-ratim--attachment on the platform of santa-rasa; vina--without.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"These are the words of the Supreme Personality of Godhead: 'When one's intelligence is fully attached to My lotus feet but one does not render practical service, one has attained the stage called santa-rati, or sama. Without santa-rati, attachment to Krsna is very difficult to achieve.'

 

PURPORT

 

This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (3.1.47).

 

TEXT 213

 

TEXT

 

samo man-nisthata buddher

dama indriya-samyamah

titiksa duhkha-sammarso

jihvopastha-jayo dhrtih

 

SYNONYMS

 

samah--neutrality; mat-nisthata--attachment for Me; buddheh--of intelligence; damah--self-control; indriya-samyamah--controlling the activities of the senses; titiksa--tolerance; duhkha--of unhappiness; sammarsah--endurance; jihva--tongue; upastha--and the urge of the genitals; jayah--conquering; dhrtih--control.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'The word sama or santa-rasa indicates that one is attached to the lotus feet of Krsna. Dama means controlling the senses and not being deviated from the Lord's service. Endurance of unhappiness is titiksa, and dhrti means controlling the tongue and the genitals.'

 

PURPORT

 

This verse is from Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.19.36). The conditioned soul under the clutches of maya, the material energy, is very much agitated by the urges of the tongue and the genitals. Control of the urges of the tongue, the belly and the genitals (which are situated in a straight line) is called dhrti. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura says, tara madhye jihva ati, lobhamaya sudurmati. Among the senses, the tongue is the most formidable enemy of the conditioned soul. Urged by the tongue, one commits many sinful activities. Although Krsna has given human beings nice food, people still commit sins by killing poor animals for the satisfaction of the tongue. Not being able to control the tongue, the conditioned soul eats more than he needs. Of course, everyone must eat to keep the body fit for the Lord's service, but when one cannot control the senses, he falls victim to the dictations of the tongue and the belly. Naturally, genital agitation follows, and one seeks illicit sex. However, if one is fixed at the lotus feet of Krsna, he can control the tongue. Bhaktivinoda Thakura further states, krsna bada dayamaya, karibare jihva jaya, sva-prasada-anna dila bhai: in order to conquer the tongue, Krsna has been very merciful and has given us nice food that has been offered to Him. When a person is attached to Krsna's lotus feet, he does not eat anything not offered to Krsna. Sei annamrta khao, radha-krsna-guna gao, preme daka caitanya-nitai. Since a devotee only eats prasada, he conquers the dictations of the tongue, belly and genitals. One can control the dictates of the senses when situated in the position of santa-rasa. Then one's advancement in Krsna consciousness is assured.

 

TEXT 214

 

TEXT

 

krsna vina trsna-tyaga----tara karya mani

ataeva 'santa' krsna-bhakta eka jani

 

SYNONYMS

 

krsna vina--without Krsna; trsna-tyaga--giving up all desires; tara--of santa-rasa; karya--the business; mani--I accept; ataeva--therefore; santa--the position of equilibrium; krsna-bhakta--a devotee of Krsna; eka--only; jani--I know.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Giving up all desires not connected with Krsna is the business of one who is in the santa-rasa. Only a devotee of Krsna can be situated on that platform. He is thus called a santa-rasa-bhakta.

 

PURPORT

 

In this position, one is freed from all material enjoyment. When one is not agitated or disturbed, he can immediately realize his relationship with Krsna. A santa-rasa devotee is therefore always fixed in realization. This instruction was given by the Lord Himself to Uddhava. The beginning of pure devotional service is called anyabhilasita-sunya. When one is situated on the platform of neutrality, he is freed from the material platform and fully situated in spiritual life. The word dama used in verse 213 means indriya-samyama-curbing one's senses. The word dama can also mean curbing one's enemies. A king has to take steps to curb the criminal activities of his citizens. Great rajarsis, devotee kings, used to control undesirable elements in their states, and this also may be called dama. However, dama here refers to the conditioned soul who must control his senses. Real dama means controlling the undesirable activities of the senses.

 

TEXT 215

 

TEXT

 

svarga, moksa krsna-bhakta 'naraka' kari' mane

krsna-nistha, trsna-tyaga----santera 'dui' gune

 

SYNONYMS

 

svarga--the heavenly kingdom; moksa--liberation from material bondage; krsna-bhakta--a devotee of Lord Krsna; naraka kari' mane--considers as good as hell; krsna-nistha--being fixed at the lotus feet of Krsna; trsna-tyaga--giving up all material desires; santera--of one on the neutrality platform; dui gune--two transcendental qualities.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"When a devotee is situated on the platform of santa-rasa, he desires neither elevation to the heavenly planets nor liberation. These are the results of karma and jnana, and the devotee considers them no better than hell. A person situated on the santa-rasa platform manifests the two transcendental qualities of detachment from all material desire and full attachment to Krsna.

 

TEXT 216

 

TEXT

 

narayana-parah sarve

na kutascana bibhyati

svargapavarga-narakesv

api tulyartha-darsinah

 

SYNONYMS

 

narayana-parah--persons who are attached to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sarve--all; na--not; kutascana--from any quarter; bibhyati--are afraid; svarga--in heavenly planets; apavarga--in liberation; narakesu--or in hell; api--although; tulya-artha--results as equal; darsinah--who see.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'A person who is devoted to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Narayana, is not afraid of anything. Elevation to the heavenly kingdom, condemnation to hell and liberation from material bondage all appear the same to a devotee.'

 

PURPORT

 

This verse is quoted from Srimad-Bhagavatam (6.17.28). Elevation to the heavenly planets, liberation from material bondage, and condemnation to hell are all equal to the devotee. The devotee's only desire is to be attached to the lotus feet of Krsna and to engage in His transcendental loving service.

 

TEXT 217

 

TEXT

 

ei dui guna vyape saba bhakta-jane

akasera 'sabda'-guna yena bhuta-gane

 

SYNONYMS

 

ei dui--these two; guna--transcendental qualities; vyape--expand; saba bhakta-jane--in the lives of all devotees; akasera--of the sky; sabda-guna--the quality of sound; yena--like; bhuta-gane--other material elements.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"These two qualities of the santa stage spread through the lives of all devotees. They are like the quality of sound in the sky. Sound vibration is found in all material elements.

 

PURPORT

 

The qualities of santa-rasa are present in all kinds of devotees, whether they are in the dasya-rasa, sakhya-rasa, vatsalya-rasa or madhura-rasa. The example of sound is given herein. Sound not only exists in the sky, or ether, but it is also present in air, fire, water and earth. This is a scientific explanation of devotional service. just as sound is present in all material elements, santa-rasa is present in all devotees, whether they are on the platform of dasya-rasa, sakhya-rasa, vatsalya-rasa or madhura-rasa.

 

TEXT 218

 

TEXT

 

santera svabhava----krsne mamata-gandha-hina

'param-brahma'-'paramatma'-jnana pravina

 

SYNONYMS

 

santera sva-bhava--the characteristic of santa-rasa; krsne--in Krsna; mamata-gandha-hina--not even the smallest quantity of intimacy; param-brahma--impersonal Brahman; paramatma--the localized situation of the Lord; jnana--knowledge; pravina--prominence.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"It is the nature of santa-rasa that not even the smallest intimacy exists. Rather, knowledge of impersonal Brahman and localized Paramatma is prominent.

 

PURPORT

 

Because of an impersonal impression of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, a devotee in the santa-rasa relationship worships the impersonal Brahman or localized aspect of the Absolute Truth (Paramatma). He does not develop a personal relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna.

 

TEXT 219

 

TEXT

 

kevala 'svarupa-jnana' haya santa-rase

'purnaisvarya-prabhu-jnana' adhika haya dasye

 

SYNONYMS

 

kevala--only; svarupa-jnana--knowledge of the constitutional position of one's self; haya--there is; santa-rase--in the mellow of neutrality; purna-aisvarya-prabhu-jnana--knowledge of the full opulences of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; adhika--greater; haya--becomes; dasye--in the transcendental mellow of servitude.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"On the platform of santa-rasa, one only realizes his constitutional position. However, when one is raised to the platform of dasya-rasa, he better understands the full opulence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

TEXT 220

 

TEXT

 

isvara-jnana, sambhrama-gaurava pracura

'seva' kari' krsne sukha dena nirantara

 

SYNONYMS

 

isvara-jnana--knowledge of the supreme controller; sambhrama-gaurava--awe and veneration; pracura--abundant; seva--service; kari'--performing; krsne--unto Lord Krsna; sukha--happiness; dena--gives; nirantara--constantly.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"On the dasya-rasa platform, knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is revealed with awe and veneration. By rendering service unto Lord Krsna, the devotee in dasya-rasa gives constant happiness to the Lord.

 

TEXT 221

 

TEXT

 

santera guna dasye ache, adhika----'sevana'

ataeva dasya-rasera ei 'dui' guna

 

SYNONYMS

 

santera--of the platform of santa-rasa; guna--the qualities; dasye--on the platform of servitude; ache--are; adhika--additional; sevana--serving; ataeva--therefore; dasya-rasera--of the platform of dasya-rasa; ei dui guna--these two qualities (namely santa and dasya).

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The qualities of santa-rasa are also present in dasya-rasa, but service is added. Thus the dasya-rasa platform contains the qualities of both santa-rasa and dasya-rasa.

 

TEXT 222

 

TEXT

 

santera guna, dasyera sevana----sakhye dui haya

dasyera 'sambhrama-gaurava'-seva, sakhye 'visvasa'-maya

 

SYNONYMS

 

santera guna--qualities of santa-rasa; dasyera sevana--the service of the dasya-rasa; sakhye--on the platform of fraternity; dui--two qualities; haya--there are; dasyera--of the dasya platform; sambhrama-gaurava--with awe and veneration; seva--service; sakhye--on the platform of fraternity; visvasa-maya--spread with confidence.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The qualities of santa-rasa and the service of dasya-rasa are both present on the platform of sakhya-rasa. On the platform of fraternity, the qualities of dasya-rasa are mixed with the confidence of fraternity instead of awe and veneration.

 

TEXT 223

 

TEXT

 

kandhe cade, kandhe cadaya, kare krida-rana

krsne seve, krsne karaya apana-sevana!

 

SYNONYMS

 

kandhe--on the shoulders; cade--gets up; kandhe cadaya--sometimes takes on his own shoulders; kare--performs; krida-rana--mock fighting; krsne seve--serves Krsna; krsne--from Krsna; karaya--causes; apana-sevana--his own service.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"On the sakhya-rasa platform, the devotee sometimes offers the Lord service and sometimes makes Krsna serve him in exchange. In their mock fighting, the cowherd boys would sometimes climb on Krsna's shoulders, and sometimes they would make Krsna climb on their shoulders.

 

TEXT 224

 

TEXT

 

visrambha-pradhana sakhya----gaurava-sambhrama-hina

ataeva sakhya-rasera 'tina' guna----cihna

 

SYNONYMS

 

visrambha-pradhana sakhya--on the platform of fraternity, in which confidence is prominent; gaurava-sambhrama--awe and veneration; hina--without; ataeva--therefore; sakhya-rasera--of the platform of fraternity; tina guna--three qualities, namely santa, dasya and sakhya; cihna--the symptom.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Since the platform of fraternity is predominated by confidential service, awe and veneration are absent. Therefore sakhya-rasa is characterized by three qualities.

 

TEXT 225

 

TEXT

 

'mamata' adhika, krsne atma-sama jnana

ataeva sakhya-rasera vasa bhagavan

 

SYNONYMS

 

mamata--intimacy; adhika--increase; krsne--with Krsna; atma-sama jnana--the notion of equality; ataeva--therefore; sakhya-rasera--by the mellow of fraternity; vasa--subjected; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"On the platform of sakhya-rasa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is obliged to the devotees who are intimate with Krsna and think themselves equal to Him.

 

TEXT 226

 

TEXT

 

vatsalye santera guna, dasyera sevana

sei sei sevanera ihan nama----'palana'

 

SYNONYMS

 

vatsalye--on the platform of parental love; santera guna--the qualities of santa-rasa; dasyera sevana--the service of dasya-rasa; sei sei sevanera--the service of santa-rasa, dasya-rasa and sakhya-rasa; ihan--on this platform; nama--named; palana--maintenance.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"On the platform of parental love, the qualities of santa-rasa, dasya-rasa and sakhya-rasa are transformed into a form of service called maintenance.

 

TEXT 227

 

TEXT

 

sakhyera guna----'asankoca', 'agaurava' sara

mamatadhikye tadana-bhartsana-vyavahara

 

SYNONYMS

 

sakhyera guna--the quality of fraternity; asankoca--without any formality; agaurava--without any veneration; sara--the essence; mamata-adhikye--on account of greater intimacy; tadana--of chastisement; bhartsana--of rebuking; vyavahara--behavior.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The essence of fraternal love is intimacy devoid of the formality and veneration found in the dasya-rasa. Due to a greater sense of intimacy, the devotee functioning in paternal love chastises and rebukes the Lord in an ordinary way.

 

TEXT 228

 

TEXT

 

apanare 'palaka' jnana, krsne 'palya'-jnana

'cari' gune vatsalya rasa----amrta-samana

 

SYNONYMS

 

apanare--unto himself; palaka jnana--the notion of a caretaker; krsne--in Lord Krsna; palya--as object of protection; jnana--notion; cari--four; gune--in qualities; vatsalya rasa--the mellow of parental love; amrta-samana--like nectar.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"On the platform of paternal love, the devotee considers himself the Lord's maintainer. Thus the Lord is the object of maintenance, like a son, and therefore this mellow is full of the four qualities of santa-rasa, dasya-rasa, fraternity and parental love. This is more transcendental nectar.

 

PURPORT

 

In his Amrta-pravaha-bhasya, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura gives us a short summary of this complicated description of the different rasas. He states that by becoming firmly fixed in the Lord's service, one is devoid of all material desires. There are two transcendental qualities on the santa-rasa platform. In all the material elements, sound vibration is found. Similarly, santa-rasa is spread over all the other transcendental mellows, which are known as dasya-rasa, sakhya-rasa, vatsalya-rasa and madhura-rasa. Although there is attachment for Krsna in awe and veneration in the santa-rasa along with two valuable transcendental qualities -attachment for Krsna and detachment from material desires-nonetheless the sense of intimacy is lacking. Therefore in the santa-rasa, attachment for impersonal Brahman and localized Paramatma is prominent. The sense of intimacy is lacking. By that intimacy one thinks of Krsna as one's only shelter and only friend. In the santa-rasa one accepts Krsna as the impersonal Param Brahma or the localized Paramatma. This is based on the speculative knowledge of the jnani. However, when this knowledge is further developed, one is convinced that Paramatma, the Supreme Lord, is master and that the living entity is His eternal servant. One then attains the platform of dasya-rasa. In dasya-rasa the Lord is accepted with awe and veneration. However, although in the santa-rasa there is no active service, in the dasya-rasa active service is prominent. Thus in the dasya-rasa, the qualities of santa-rasa and service are predominantly visible. Similarly, when this same rasa is developed into fraternity (sakhya-rasa), a friendly intimacy is added. There is no awe or veneration in the sakhya-rasa.The sakhya-rasa is invested with three qualities-santa, dasya, and sakhya. Similarly, on the platform of parental love, the qualities of santa-rasa and dasya-rasa are fully developed in another form-the sense of maintaining the Lord. Therefore on the platform of parental love there exists a combination of four transcendental qualities-santa, dasya, sakhya, and the qualities of paternity, which put the devotee in the position of a maintainer. Thus on the platform of parental love the four qualities of transcendental love are present.

 

TEXT 229

 

TEXT

 

se amrtanande bhakta saha dubena apane

'krsna----bhakta-vasa' guna kahe aisvarya-jnani-gane

 

SYNONYMS

 

se--that Lord Krsna; amrta-anande--in spiritual happiness; bhakta--the devotee; saha--with; dubena--plunges; apane--Himself; krsna--Krsna; bhakta-vasa--of being subjugated by the devotee; guna--the quality; kahe--say; aisvarya-jnani-gane--learned scholars knowing the opulence of Krsna.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"The exchange of spiritual happiness between Krsna and His devotee, in which Krsna is controlled by His devotee, is compared to an ocean of nectar into which the devotee and Krsna plunge. This is the verdict of learned scholars who appreciate Krsna's opulence.

 

TEXT 230

 

TEXT

 

itidrk-svalilabhir ananda-kunde

svaghosam nimajjantam akhyapayantam

tadiyesita-jnesu bhaktair jitatvam

punah prematas tam satavrtti vande

 

SYNONYMS

 

iti--thus; idrk-sva-lilabhih--by this Damodara in His transcendental pastimes; ananda-kunde--in the ocean of transcendental bliss; sva-ghosam--His personal associates; nimajjantam--plunging; akhyapayantam--declaring; tadiya--of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; isita-jnesu--among learned scholars expert in the knowledge of the opulences; bhaktaih--by the devotees; jitatvam--the subjugation; punah--again; prematah--with love; tam--unto Him; sata-avrtti--hundreds of times; vande--I offer my respectful obeisances.

 

TRANSLATION

 

" 'Again let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead. O my Lord, I offer my obeisances hundreds and thousands of times with all affection because by Your personal pastimes You plunge the gopis into an ocean of nectar. Appreciating Your opulence, devotees generally declare that You are always subjugated by their feelings.'

 

PURPORT

 

This verse is from the Damodarastaka in the Padma Purana. Attachment for Krsna in santa-rasa, rendering service to the Lord in dasya-rasa, rendering relaxed service in fraternity, and serving in parental love with feelings of maintenance all combine on the platform of conjugal love when the devotee wants to serve the Lord by offering Him his personal body. Thus the qualities of the other rasas combine to form the nectar of conjugal love. On this platform, all the different feelings of a devotee are amalgamated.

 

TEXT 231

 

TEXT

 

madhura-rase----krsna-nistha, seva atisaya

sakhyera asankoca, lalana-mamatadhikya haya

 

SYNONYMS

 

madhura-rase--on the platform of conjugal love; krsna-nistha--attachment for Krsna; seva atisaya--an improved rendering service; sakhyera--of the platform of fraternity; asankoca--relaxation; lalana--maintenance; mamata-adhikya--increase of intimacy; haya--there is.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"On the platform of conjugal love, attachment for Krsna, rendering service unto Him, the relaxed feelings of fraternity and the feelings of maintenance all increase in intimacy.

 

TEXT 232

 

TEXT

 

kanta-bhave nijanga diya karena sevana

ataeva madhura-rasera haya 'panca' guna

 

SYNONYMS

 

kanta-bhave--on the platform of conjugal love; nija-anga--own body; diya--offering; karena--executes; sevana--service; ataeva--therefore; madhura-rasera--of the mellow of conjugal love; haya--there are; panca guna--five kinds of transcendental qualities.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"On the platform of conjugal love, the devotee offers his body in the service of the Lord. Thus on this platform all five transcendental qualities are present.

 

TEXT 233

 

TEXT

 

akasadi guna yena para para bhute

eka-dui-tina-cari krame panca prthivite

 

SYNONYMS

 

akasa-adi--beginning with the sky; guna--qualities; yena--as; para para--one after another; bhute--in the material elements; eka--one; dui--two; tina--three; cari--four; krame--in this way; panca--all five qualities; prthivite--in earth.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"All the material qualities evolve one after another in the material elements, beginning from ether. By gradual evolution, first one quality develops, then two qualities develop, then three and four, until all five qualities are found in earth.

 

TEXT 234

 

TEXT

 

ei-mata madhure saba bhava-samahara

ataeva asvadadhikye kare camatkara

 

SYNONYMS

 

ei-mata--in this way; madhure--on the platform of conjugal love; saba--all; bhava-samahara--amalgamation of the feelings; ataeva--therefore; asvada-adhikye--from the increase of tasting by the devotees; kare camatkara--is certainly wonderful.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Similarly, on the platform of conjugal love, all the feelings of the devotees are amalgamated. The intensified taste is certainly wonderful."

 

TEXT 235

 

TEXT

 

ei bhakti-rasera karilana, dig-darasana

ihara vistara mane kariha bhavana

 

SYNONYMS

 

ei--this; bhakti-rasera--of the feelings of devotional service; karilana--I have described; dik-darasana--general survey; ihara--of this; vistara--expansion; mane--within the mind; kariha--you should do; bhavana--consideration.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu then concluded: "I have simply given a general survey describing the mellows of devotional service. You can consider how to adjust and expand this.

 

TEXT 236

 

TEXT

 

bhavite bhavite krsna sphuraye antare

krsna-krpaya ajna paya rasa-sindhu-pare

 

SYNONYMS

 

bhavite bhavite--in this way when one is strictly in thought; krsna--Lord Krsna; sphuraye antare--manifests within; krsna-krpaya--by the mercy of Krsna; ajna--one not expert in knowledge; paya--reaches; rasa-sindhu-pare--the shore of the ocean of transcendental mellows.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"When one thinks of Krsna constantly, love for Him is manifest within the heart. Even though one may be ignorant, one can reach the shore of the ocean of transcendental love by Lord Krsna's mercy."

 

TEXT 237

 

TEXT

 

eta bali' prabhu tanre kaila alingana

varanasi calibare prabhura haila mana

 

SYNONYMS

 

eta bali'--saying this; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tanre--unto Rupa Gosvami; kaila--did; alingana--embracing; varanasi--toward Benares; calibare--to go; prabhura--of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; haila--was; mana--the mind.

 

TRANSLATION

 

After saying this, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu embraced Srila Rupa Gosvami. The Lord then decided to go to the city of Benares.

 

TEXT 238

 

TEXT

 

prabhate uthiya yabe karila gamana

tabe tanra pade rupa kare nivedana

 

SYNONYMS

 

prabhate--in the morning; uthiya--getting up; yabe--when; karila--made; gamana--departure; tabe--at that time; tanra--His; pade--at the lotus feet; rupa--Srila Rupa Gosvami; kare--does; nivedana--submission.

 

TRANSLATION

 

The next morning, when Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu arose and prepared to leave for Varanasi [Benares], Srila Rupa Gosvami made the following statement at the Lord's lotus feet.

 

TEXT 239

 

TEXT

 

'ajna haya, asi muni sri-carana-sange

sahite na pari muni viraha-tarange'

 

SYNONYMS

 

ajna haya--if there is permission; asi--may come; muni--I; sri-carana-sange--with Your Lordship; sahite--to tolerate; na pari--not able; muni--I; viraha-tarange--the waves of separation.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"If You give me permission, I shall go with Your Lordship. It is not possible for me to tolerate the waves of separation."

 

TEXT 240

 

TEXT

 

prabhu kahe,----tomara kartavya, amara vacana

nikate asiyacha tumi, yaha vrndavana

 

SYNONYMS

 

prabhu kahe--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu replied; tomara kartavya--your duty; amara vacana--My order; nikate asiyacha--have come near; tumi--you; yaha--go; vrndavana--to Vrndavana.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu replied, "Your duty is to carry out My order. You have come near Vrndavana. Now you should go there.

 

TEXT 241

 

TEXT

 

vrndavana haite tumi gauda-desa diya

amare miliba nilacalete asiya

 

SYNONYMS

 

vrndavana haite--from Vrndavana; tumi--you; gauda-desa diya--by way of Bengal; amare--Me; miliba--will meet; nilacalete--at Jagannatha Puri; asiya--coming.

 

TRANSLATION

 

"Later, you can go from Vrndavana to Jagannatha Puri through Bengal [Gauda-desa]. There you will meet Me again."

 

TEXT 242

 

TEXT

 

tanre alingiya prabhu naukate cadila

murcchita hana tenho tahani padila

 

SYNONYMS

 

tanre--him; alingiya--embracing; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; naukate--in a boat; cadila--got aboard; murcchita hana--fainting; tenho--he (Srila Rupa Gosvami); tahani--on the spot; padila--fell.

 

TRANSLATION

 

After embracing Rupa Gosvami, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu got into a boat. Rupa Gosvami fainted and fell down on the spot.

 

TEXT 243

 

TEXT

 

daksinatya-vipra tanre ghare lana gela

tabe dui bhai vrndavanere calila

 

SYNONYMS

 

daksinatya-vipra--the brahmana from Deccan; tanre--him (Rupa Gosvami); ghare lana--taking to his home; gela--went; tabe--thereafter; dui bhai--the two brothers; vrndavanere--toward Vrndavana; calila--departed.

 

TRANSLATION

 

The brahmana from Deccan took Rupa Gosvami to his home, and thereafter the two brothers departed for Vrndavana.

 

TEXT 244

 

TEXT

 

mahaprabhu cali' cali' aila varanasi

candrasekhara milila gramera bahire asi'

 

SYNONYMS

 

mahaprabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; cali' cali'--walking and walking; aila--arrived; varanasi--at Varanasi; candrasekhara--Candrasekhara; milila--He met; gramera--of the village; bahire--outside; asi'--coming.

 

TRANSLATION

 

After walking and walking, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu finally arrived at Varanasi, where He met Candrasekhara, who was coming out of the city.

 

TEXT 245

 

TEXT

 

ratre tenho svapna dekhe,----prabhu aila ghare

pratah-kale asi' rahe gramera bahire

 

SYNONYMS

 

ratre--at night; tenho--he (Candrasekhara); svapna--a dream; dekhe--saw; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; aila--has come; ghare--to his home; pratah-kale--in the morning; asi'--coming; rahe--he remained; gramera bahire--outside the city.

 

TRANSLATION

 

In a dream Candrasekhara had seen that Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu had come to his home; therefore in the morning Candrasekhara went outside the city to receive the Lord.

 

TEXT 246

 

TEXT

 

acambite prabhu dekhi' carane padila

anandita hana nija-grhe lana gela

 

SYNONYMS

 

acambite--suddenly; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; dekhi'--seeing; carane--at His feet; padila--he fell; anandita hana--becoming very glad; nija-grhe--to his own place; lana--taking; gela--went.

 

TRANSLATION

 

While Candrasekhara was waiting outside the city, he suddenly saw Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu arrive, and he fell down at the Lord's feet. Being very happy, he took the Lord to his home.

 

TEXT 247

 

TEXT

 

tapana-misra suni' asi' prabhure milila

ista-gosthi kari' prabhura nimantrana kaila

 

SYNONYMS

 

tapana-misra--Tapana Misra; suni'--hearing; asi'--coming; prabhure milila--met the Lord; ista-gosthi kari'--conversing; prabhura--to Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; nimantrana--invitation; kaila--made.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Tapana Misra also heard news of the Lord's arrival in Varanasi, and he went to Candrasekhara's house to meet Him. After talking, he invited the Lord to take lunch at his place.

 

TEXT 248

 

TEXT

 

nija ghare lana prabhure bhiksa karaila

bhattacarye candrasekhara nimantrana kaila

 

SYNONYMS

 

nija ghare--to his own place; lana--taking; prabhure--to the Lord; bhiksa karaila--offered lunch; bhattacarye--unto Balabhadra Bhattacarya; candrasekhara--Candrasekhara; nimantrana--invitation; kaila--made.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Tapana Misra took Caitanya Mahaprabhu to his own house and gave Him lunch. Candrasekhara invited Balabhadra Bhattacarya to take lunch at his home.

 

TEXT 249

 

TEXT

 

bhiksa karana misra kahe prabhu-paya dhari'

eka bhiksa magi, more deha' krpa kari'

 

SYNONYMS

 

bhiksa karana--after offering the lunch; misra--Tapana Misra; kahe--said; prabhu--of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; paya--the lotus feet; dhari'--touching; eka bhiksa--one favor; magi--I beg; more--unto Me; deha'--kindly deliver; krpa kari'--by Your causeless mercy.

 

TRANSLATION

 

After offering lunch to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Tapana Misra begged a favor from the Lord and requested Him to reward him mercy.

 

TEXT 250

 

TEXT

 

yavat tomara haya kasi-pure sthiti

mora ghara vina bhiksa na kariba kati

 

SYNONYMS

 

yavat--as long as; tomara--Your; haya--there is; kasi-pure--at Varanasi; sthiti--stay; mora ghara--my place; vina--except; bhiksa--lunch; na kariba--kindly do not take; kati--anywhere.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Tapana Misra said, "As long as Your Lordship stays in Varanasi, please do not accept an invitation from anyone but me."

 

TEXT 251

 

TEXT

 

prabhu janena----dina panca-sata se rahiba

sannyasira sange bhiksa kahan na kariba

 

SYNONYMS

 

prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; janena--knows; dina--days; panca-sata--five days or at the most a week; se--that; rahiba--I shall stay; sannyasira sange--with other Mayavadi sannyasis; bhiksa--lunch; kahan--at any time; na kariba--I shall not take.

 

TRANSLATION

 

It was known to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu that He would remain there only five or seven days. He would not accept any invitation that involved Mayavadi sannyasis.

 

TEXT 252

 

TEXT

 

eta jani' tanra bhiksa kaila angikara

vasa-nistha kaila candrasekharera ghara

 

SYNONYMS

 

eta jani'--on this understanding; tanra--his; bhiksa--lunch; kaila angikara--He accepted; vasa-nistha--residence; kaila--made; candrasekharera ghara--the house of Candrasekhara.

 

TRANSLATION

 

With this understanding, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu agreed to accept lunch at the place of Tapana Misra. The Lord made His residence at the home of Candrasekhara.

 

TEXT 253

 

TEXT

 

maharastriya vipra asi' tanhare milila

prabhu tanre sneha kari' krpa prakasila

 

SYNONYMS

 

maharastriya vipra--the Maharastriya brahmana; asi'--coming; tanhare--him; milila--met; prabhu--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; tanre--to him; sneha kari'--showing His affection; krpa prakasila--distributed His mercy.

 

TRANSLATION

 

The Maharastriya brahmana came, and the Lord met him. Out of affection, the Lord bestowed His mercy upon him.

 

TEXT 254

 

TEXT

 

mahaprabhu aila suni' sista sista jana

brahmana, ksatriya asi' karena darasana

 

SYNONYMS

 

mahaprabhu aila--Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has arrived; suni'--hearing; sista sista jana--all respectable persons; brahmana--belonging to the brahmana community; ksatriya--belonging to the ksatriya community; asi'--coming; karena darasana--see.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Hearing that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu had come, all the respectable members of the brahmana and ksatriya communities came to see Him.

 

TEXT 255

 

TEXT

 

sri-rupa-upare prabhura yata krpa haila

atyanta vistara-katha sanksepe kahila

 

SYNONYMS

 

sri-rupa-upare--upon Sri Rupa Gosvami; prabhura--of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu; yata--as much; krpa--mercy; haila--there was; atyanta--very much; vistara-katha--elaborate topic; sanksepe--in brief; kahila--I have described.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Much mercy was thus bestowed upon Sri Ra Gosvami, and I have briefly described all those topics.

 

TEXT 256

 

TEXT

 

sraddha kari' ei katha sune ye jane

prema-bhakti paya sei caitanya-carane

 

SYNONYMS

 

sraddha kari'--with faith; ei katha--this description; sune--hears; yei jane--any person who; prema-bhakti--love of Godhead; paya--achieves; sei--that person; caitanya-carane--at the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Whoever hears this narration with faith and love certainly develops love of God at the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

 

TEXT 257

 

TEXT

 

sri-rupa-raghunatha-pade yara asa

caitanya-caritamrta kahe krsnadasa

 

SYNONYMS

 

sri-rupa--Srila Rupa Gosvami; raghunatha--Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami; pade--at the lotus feet; yara--whose; asa--expectation; caitanya-caritamrta--the book named Caitanya-caritamrta; kahe--describes; krsnadasa--Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami.

 

TRANSLATION

 

Praying at the lotus feet of Sri Rupa and Sri Raghunatha, always desiring their mercy, I, Krsnadasa, narrate Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, following in their footsteps.

 

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Madhya-lila, Nineteenth Chapter, describing the Lord's instructions to Srila Rupa Gosvami at Prayaga in the science of devotional service.

 

Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu Instructs Sanatana Gosvami in the Science of the Absolute Truth

 


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