The External Reasons for Lord Caitanya's Appearance
In this chapter the author has fully discussed the reason for the descent of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krsna, after displaying His pastimes as Lord Krsna, thought it wise to make His advent in the form of a devotee to explain personally the transcendental mellow reciprocations of service and love between Himself and His servants, friends, parents and fiancees. According to the Vedic literature, the foremost occupational duty for humanity in this Age of Kali is nama-sankirtana, or congregational chanting of the holy name of the Lord. The incarnation for this age especially preaches this process, but only Krsna Himself can explain the confidential loving service performed in the four principal varieties of loving affairs between the Supreme Lord and His devotees. Lord Krsna therefore personally appeared, with His plenary portions, as Lord Caitanya. As stated in this chapter, only for that purpose did Lord Krsna appear personally in Navadvipa in the form of Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
Krsnadasa Kaviraja has herein presented much authentic evidence from Srimad-Bhagavatam and other scriptures to substantiate the identity of Lord Caitanya with Sri Krsna Himself. He has described bodily symptoms in Lord Caitanya that are visible only in the person of the Supreme Lord, and he has proved that Lord Caitanya appeared with His personal associates--Sri Nityananda, Advaita, Gadadhara, Srivasa and other devotees--to preach the special significance of chanting Hare Krsna. The appearance of Lord Caitanya is both significant and confidential. He can be appreciated only by pure devotees and only through the process of devotional service. The Lord tried to conceal His identity as the Supreme Personality of Godhead by representing Himself as a devotee, but His pure devotees can recognize Him by His special features. The Vedas and Puranas foretell the appearance of Lord Caitanya, but still He is sometimes called, significantly, the concealed descent of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Advaita Acarya was a contemporary of Lord Caitanya's father. He felt sorry for the condition of the world because even after Lord Krsna's appearance, no one had interest in devotional service to Krsna. This forgetfulness was so overwhelming that Advaita Prabhu was convinced that no one but Lord Krsna Himself could enlighten people about devotional service to the Supreme Lord. Therefore Advaita requested Lord Krsna to appear as Lord Caitanya. Offering tulasi leaves and Ganges water, He cried for the Lord's appearance. The Lord, being satisfied by His pure devotees, descends to satisfy them. As such, being pleased by Advaita Acarya, Lord Caitanya appeared.
sri-caitanya-prabhum--to Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; vande--I offer my respectful obeisances; yat--of whom; pada-asraya--of the shelter of the lotus feet; viryatah--from the power; sangrhnati--collects; akara-vratat--from the multitude of mines in the form of scriptures; ajnah--a fool; siddhanta--of conclusion; sat-manin--the best jewels.
I offer my respectful obeisances to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. By the potency of the shelter of His lotus feet, even a fool can collect the valuable jewels of conclusive truth from the mines of the revealed scriptures.
jaya jaya--all glories; sri-caitanya--to Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; jaya--all glories; nityananda--to Lord Nityananda; jaya--all glories; advaita-candra--to Advaita Acarya; jaya--all glories; gaura-bhakta-vrnda--to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
All glories to Lord Caitanya. All glories to Lord Nityananda. All glories to Advaitacandra. And all glories to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya.
anarpita--not bestowed; carim--having been formerly; cirat--for a long time; karunaya--by causeless mercy; avatirnah--descended; kalau--in the Age of Kali; samarpayitum--to bestow; unnata--elevated; ujjvala-rasam--the conjugal mellow; sva-bhakti--of His own service; sriyam--the treasure; harih--the Supreme Lord; purata--than gold; sundara--more beautiful; dyuti--of splendor; kadamba--with a multitude; sandipitah--illuminated; sada--always; hrdaya-kandare--in the cavity of the heart; sphuratu--let Him be manifest; vah--your; saci-nandanah--the son of mother Saci.
"May that Lord who is known as the son of Srimati Sacidevi be transcendentally situated in the innermost core of your heart. Resplendent with the radiance of molten gold, He has descended in the Age of Kali by His causeless mercy to bestow what no incarnation has ever offered before: the most elevated mellow of devotional service, the mellow of conjugal love."
This is a quotation from the Vidagdha-madhava, a drama compiled and edited by Srila Rupa Gosvami.
purna bhagavan krsna vrajendra-kumara
goloke vrajera saha nitya vihara
purna--full; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; krsna--Lord Krsna; vrajendra-kumara--the son of the King of Vraja; goloke--in Goloka; vrajera saha--along with Vrajadhama; nitya--eternal; vihara--pastimes.
Lord Krsna, the son of the King of Vraja, is the Supreme Lord. He eternally enjoys transcendental pastimes in His eternal abode, Goloka, which includes Vrajadhama.
In the previous chapter it has been established that Krsna, the son of Vrajendra (the King of Vraja), is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, with six opulences. He eternally enjoys transcendentally variegated opulences on His planet, which is known as Goloka. The eternal pastimes of the Lord in the spiritual planet Krsnaloka are called aprakata, or unmanifested, pastimes because they are beyond the purview of the conditioned souls. Lord Krsna is always present everywhere, but when He is not present before our eyes, He is said to be aprakata, or unmanifested.
brahmara eka dine tinho eka-bara
avatirna hana karena prakata vihara
brahmara--of Lord Brahma; eka--one; dine--in the day; tinho--He; eka-bara--one time; avatirna--descended; hana--being; karena--performs; prakata--manifest; vihara--pastimes.
Once in a day of Brahma, He descends to this world to manifest His transcendental pastimes.
satya, treta, dvapara, kali, cari-yuga jani
sei cari-yuge divya eka-yuga mani
satya--Satya; treta--Treta; dvapara--Dvapara; kali--Kali; cari-yuga--four ages; jani--we know; sei--these; cari-yuge--in the four ages; divya--divine; eka-yuga--one age; mani--we consider.
We know that there are four ages [yugas], namely Satya, Treta, Dvapara and Kali. These four together comprise one divya-yuga.
ekattara--seventy-one; catuh-yuge--in cycles of four ages; eka--one; manu-antara--period of a Manu; caudda--fourteen; manu-antara--periods of Manu; brahmara--of Lord Brahma; divasa--a day; bhitara--within.
Seventy-one divya-yugas constitute one manv-antara. There are fourteen manv-antaras in one day of Brahma.
A manv-antara is the period controlled by one Manu. The reign of fourteen Manus equals the length of one day (twelve hours) in the life of Brahma, and the night of Brahma is of the same duration. These calculations are given in the authentic astronomy book known as the Surya-siddhanta. This book was compiled by the great professor of astronomy and mathematics Bimal Prasad Datta, later known as Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami, who was our merciful spiritual master. He was honored with the title Siddhanta Sarasvati for writing a commentary on the Surya-siddhanta, and the title Gosvami Maharaja was added when he accepted sannyasa, the renounced order of life.
'vaivasvata'-nama ei saptama manv-antara
sataisa catur-yuga tahara antara
vaivasvata-nama--named Vaivasvata; ei--this; saptama--seventh; manu-antara--period of Manu; sataisa--twenty-seven; catuh-yuga--cycles of four ages; tahara--of that; antara--period.
The present Manu, who is the seventh, is called Vaivasvata [the son of Vivasvan]. Twenty-seven divya-yugas [27 x 4,320,000 solar years] of his age have now passed.
The names of the fourteen Manus are as follows: (1) Svayambhuva, (2) Svarocisa, (3) Uttama, (4) Tamasa, (5) Raivata, (6) Caksusa, (7) Vaivasvata, (8) Savarni, (9) Daksa-savarni, (10) Brahma-savarni, (11) Dharma-savarni, (12) Rudraputra (Rudra-savarni), (13) Raucya, or Deva-savarni, (14) and Bhautyaka, or Indra-savarni.
astavimsa catur-yuge dvaparera sese
vrajera sahite haya krsnera prakase
astavimsa--twenty-eighth; catuh-yuge--in the cycle of four ages; dvaparera--of the Dvapara-yuga; sese--at the end; vrajera sahite--along with Vraja; haya--is; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; prakase--manifestation.
At the end of the Dvapara-yuga of the twenty-eighth divya-yuga, Lord Krsna appears on earth with the full paraphernalia of His eternal Vraja-dhama.
Now is the term of Vaivasvata Manu, during which Lord Caitanya appears. First Lord Krsna appears at the close of the Dvapara-yuga of the twenty-eighth divya-yuga, and then Lord Caitanya appears in the Kali-yuga of the same divya-yuga. Lord Krsna and Lord Caitanya appear once in each day of Brahma, or once in fourteen manv-antaras, each of seventy-one divya-yugas in duration.
From the beginning of Brahma's day of 4,320,000,000 years, six Manus appear and disappear before Lord Krsna appears. Thus 1,975,320,000 years of the day of Brahma elapse before the appearance of Lord Krsna. This is an astronomical calculation according to solar years.
dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, srngara----cari rasa
cari bhavera bhakta yata krsna tara vasa
dasya--servitude; sakhya--friendship; vatsalya--parental affection; srngara--conjugal love; cari--four; rasa--mellows; cari--four; bhavera--of the sentiments; bhakta--devotees; yata--as many as there are; krsna--Lord Krsna; tara--by them; vasa--subdued.
Servitude [dasya], friendship [sakhya], parental affection [vatsalya] and conjugal love [srngara] are the four transcendental mellows [rasas]. By the devotees who cherish these four mellows, Lord Krsna is subdued.
Dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and srngara are the transcendental modes of loving service to the Lord. Santa-rasa, or the neutral stage, is not mentioned in this verse because although in santa-rasa one considers the Absolute Truth the sublime great, one does not go beyond that conception. Santa-rasa is a very grand idea for materialistic philosophers, but such idealistic appreciation is only the beginning; it is the lowest among the relationships in the spiritual world. Santa-rasa is not given much importance because as soon as there is a slight understanding between the knower and the known, active loving transcendental reciprocations and exchanges begin. Dasya-rasa is the basic relationship between Krsna and His devotees; therefore this verse considers dasya the first stage of transcendental devotional service.
vraje krida kare krsna premavista hana
dasa--servants; sakha--friends; pita-mata--father and mother; kanta-gana--lovers; lana--taking; vraje--in Vraja; krida kare--plays; krsna--Lord Krsna; prema-avista--absorbed in love; hana--being.
Absorbed in such transcendental love, Lord Sri Krsna enjoys in Vraja with His devoted servants, friends, parents and conjugal lovers.
The descent of Sri Krsna, the Absolute Personality of Godhead, is very purposeful. In the Bhagavad-gita it is said that one who knows the truth about Sri Krsna's descent and His various activities is at once liberated and does not have to fall again to this existence of birth and death after he leaves his present material body. In other words, one who factually understands Krsna makes his life perfect. Imperfect life is realized in material existence, in five different relationships we share with everyone within the material world: neutrality, servitorship, friendship, filial love, and amorous love between husband and wife or lover and beloved. These five enjoyable relationships within the material world are perverted reflections of relationships with the Absolute Personality of Godhead in the transcendental nature. That Absolute Personality, Sri Krsna, descends to revive the five eternally existing relationships. Thus He manifests His transcendental pastimes in Vraja so that people may be attracted into that sphere of activities and leave aside their imitation relationships with the mundane. Then, after fully exhibiting all such activities, the Lord disappears.
yathesta vihari' krsna kare antardhana
antardhana kari' mane kare anumana
yatha-ista--as much as He wishes; vihari'--enjoying; krsna--Lord Krsna; kare--makes; antardhana--disappearance; antardhana kari'--disappearing; mane--in the mind; kare--He makes; anumana--consideration.
Lord Krsna enjoys His transcendental pastimes as long as He wishes, and then He disappears. After disappearing, however, He thinks thus:
cira-kala nahi kari prema-bhakti dana
bhakti vina jagatera nahi avasthana
cira-kala--for a long time; nahi kari--I have not done; prema-bhakti--loving devotional service; dana--giving; bhakti--devotional service; vina--without; jagatera--of the universe; nahi--not; avasthana--existence.
"For a long time I have not bestowed unalloyed loving service to Me upon the inhabitants of the world. Without such loving attachment, the existence of the material world is useless."
The Lord seldom awards pure transcendental love, but without such pure love of God, freed from fruitive activities and empiric speculation, one cannot attain perfection in life.
sakala jagate more kare vidhi-bhakti
vidhi-bhaktye vraja-bhava paite nahi sakti
sakala--all; jagate--in the universe; more--to Me; kare--they do; vidhi-bhakti--regulative devotional service; vidhi-bhaktye--by regulative devotional service; vraja-bhava--the feelings of those in Vraja; paite--to obtain; nahi--not; sakti--the power.
"Everywhere in the world people worship Me according to scriptural injunctions. But simply by following such regulative principles one cannot attain the loving sentiments of the devotees in Vrajabhumi."
aisvarya-jnanete saba jagat misrita
aisvarya-sithila-preme nahi mora prita
aisvarya-jnanete--with knowledge of the opulences; saba--all; jagat--the world; misrita--mixed; aisvarya-sithila-preme--to love enfeebled by opulence; nahi--there is not; mora--My; prita--attraction.
"Knowing My opulences, the whole world looks upon Me with awe and veneration. But devotion made feeble by such reverence does not attract Me."
After His appearance, Lord Krsna thought that He had not distributed the transcendental personal dealings with His devotees in dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhurya. One may understand the science of the Supreme Personality of Godhead from the Vedic literature and thus become a devotee of the Lord and worship Him within the regulative principles described in the scriptures, but one will not know in this way how Krsna is served by the residents of Vrajabhumi. One cannot understand the dealings of the Lord in Vrndavana simply by executing the ritualistic regulative principles mentioned in the scriptures. By following scriptural injunctions one may enhance his appreciation for the glories of the Lord, but there is no chance for one to enter into personal dealings with Him. Giving too much attention to understanding the exalted glories of the Lord reduces the chance of one's entering into personal loving affairs with the Lord. To teach the principles of such loving dealings, the Lord decided to appear as Lord Caitanya.
aisvarya-jnane--in knowledge of the opulences; vidhi--according to rules and regulations; bhajana--worship; kariya--doing; vaikunthake--to Vaikuntha; yaya--they go; catuh-vidha--four kinds; mukti--liberation; pana--achieving.
"By performing such regulated devotional service in awe and veneration, one may go to Vaikuntha and attain the four kinds of liberation."
sarsti, sarupya, ara samipya, salokya
sayujya na laya bhakta yate brahma-aikya
sarsti--opulences equal with the Lord's; sarupya--the same form as the Lord's; ara--and; samipya--personal association with the Lord; salokya--residence on a Vaikuntha planet; sayujya--oneness with the Lord; na laya--they do not accept; bhakta--devotees; yate--since; brahma-aikya--oneness with Brahman.
"These liberations are sarsti [achieving opulences equal to those of the Lord], sarupya [having a form the same as the Lord's], samipya [living as a personal associate of the Lord] and salokya [living on a Vaikuntha planet]. Devotees never accept sayujya, however, since that is oneness with Brahman."
Those engaged in devotional service according to the ritualistic principles mentioned in the scriptures attain these different kinds of liberation. But although such devotees can attain sarsti, sarupya, samipya and salokya, they are not concerned with these liberations, for such devotees are satisfied only in rendering transcendental loving service to the Lord. The fifth kind of liberation, sayujya, is never accepted even by devotees who perform only ritualistic worship. To attain sayujya, or merging into the Brahman effulgence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the aspiration of the impersonalists. A devotee never cares for sayujya liberation.
yuga-dharma pravartaimu nama-sankirtana
cari bhava-bhakti diya nacamu bhuvana
yuga-dharma--the religion of the age; pravartaimu--I shall inaugurate; nama-sankirtana--chanting of the holy name; cari--four; bhava--of the moods; bhakti--devotion; diya--giving; nacamu--I shall cause to dance; bhuvana--the world.
"I shall personally inaugurate the religion of the age--nama-sankirtana, the congregational chanting of the holy name. I shall make the world dance in ecstasy, realizing the four mellows of loving devotional service."
apani--personally; karimu--I shall make; bhakta-bhava--the position of a devotee; angikare--acceptance; apani--personally; acari'--practicing; bhakti--devotional service; sikhaimu--I shall teach; sabare--to all.
"I shall accept the role of a devotee, and I shall teach devotional service by practicing it Myself."
When one associates with a pure devotee, he becomes so elevated that he does not aspire even for sarsti, sarupya, samipya or salokya, because he feels that such liberation is a kind of sense gratification. Pure devotees do not ask anything from the Lord for their personal benefit. Even if offered personal benefits, pure devotees do not accept them, because their only desire is to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead by transcendental loving service. No one but the Lord Himself can teach this highest form of devotional service. Therefore, when the Lord took the place of the incarnation of Kali-yuga to spread the glories of chanting Hare Krsna--the system of worship recommended in this age--He also distributed the process of devotional service performed on the platform of transcendental spontaneous love. To teach the highest principles of spiritual life, the Lord Himself appeared as a devotee in the form of Lord Caitanya.
apane na kaile dharma sikhana na yaya
ei ta' siddhanta gita-bhagavate gaya
apane--personally; na kaile--if not practiced; dharma--religion; sikhana--the teaching; na yaya--does not advance; ei--this; ta'--certainly; siddhanta--conclusion; gita--in the Bhagavad-gita; bhagavate--in Srimad-Bhagavatam; gaya--they sing.
"Unless one practices devotional service himself, he cannot teach it to others. This conclusion is indeed confirmed throughout the Gita and Bhagavatam."
yada yada--whenever; hi--certainly; dharmasya--of religious principles; glanih--decrease; bhavati--there is; bharata--O descendant of Bharata; abhyutthanam--increase; adharmasya--of irreligion; tada--then; atmanam--Myself; srjami--manifest; aham--I.
"'Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religious practice, O descendant of Bharata, and a predominant rise of irreligion--at that time I descend Myself."
vinasaya ca duskrtam
sambhavami yuge yuge
paritranaya--for the deliverance; sadhunam--of the devotees; vinasaya--for the destruction; ca--and; duskrtam--of the miscreants; dharma--religious principles; samsthapana-arthaya--for the purpose of establishing; sambhavami--I appear; yuge yuge--in every age.
" 'To deliver the pious and to annihilate the miscreants, as well as to reestablish the principles of religion, I Myself appear, millennium after millennium.' "
Texts 22 and 23 were spoken by Lord Krsna in the Bhagavad-gita (4.7-8). Texts 24 and 25, which follow, are also from the Bhagavad-gita (3.24, 21).
utsideyur ime loka
na kuryam karma ced aham
sankarasya ca karta syam
upahanyam imah prajah
udsideyuh--would fall into ruin; ime--these; lokah--worlds; na kuryam--did not perform; karma--action; cet--if; aham--I; sankarasya--of unwanted population; ca--and; karta--a creator; syam--would become; upahanyam--would spoil; imah--these; prajah--living entities.
" 'If I did not show the proper principles of religion, all these worlds would fall into ruin. I would be a cause of unwanted population and would spoil all these living beings.' "
yad yad acarati sresthas
tat tad evetaro janah
sa yat pramanam kurute
lokas tad anuvartate
yat yat--however; acarati--behaves; sresthah--the best man; tat tat--that; eva--certainly; itarah--the lesser; janah--man; sah--he; yat--which; pramanam--standard; kurute--shows; lokah--the people; tat--that; anuvartate--follow.
" 'Whatever actions a great man performs, common people follow. And whatever standards he sets by exemplary acts, all the world pursues.' "
yuga-dharma-pravartana haya amsa haite
ama vina anye nare vraja-prema dite
yuga-dharma--of the religion of the age; pravartana--the inauguration; haya--is; amsa--the plenary portion; haite--from; ama--for Me; vina--except; anye--another; nare--is not able; vraja-prema--love like that of the residents of Vraja; dite--to bestow.
"My plenary portions can establish the principles of religion for each age. No one but Me, however, can bestow the kind of loving service performed by the residents of Vraja."
santv avatara bahavah
krsnad anyah ko va latasv
api prema-do bhavati
santu--let there be; avatarah--incarnations; bahavah--many; pankaja-nabhasya--of the Lord, from whose navel grows a lotus flower; sarvatah-bhadrah--completely auspicious; krsnat--than Lord Krsna; anyah--other; kah va--who possibly; latasu--on the surrendered souls; api--also; prema-dah--the bestower of love; bhavati--is.
" 'There may be many all-auspicious incarnations of the Personality of Godhead, but who other than Lord Sri Krsna can bestow love of God upon the surrendered souls?' "
This quotation from Bilvamangala Thakura is found in the Laghu-bhagavatamrta (1.5.37).
tahate apana bhakta-gana kari' sange
prthivite avatari' karimu nana range
"Therefore in the company of My devotees I shall appear on earth and perform various colorful pastimes."
eta bhavi' kali-kale prathama sandhyaya
avatirna haila krsna apani nadiyaya
eta--thus; bhavi'--thinking; kali-kale--in the Age of Kali; prathama--first; sandhyaya--in the junction; avatirna haila--descended; krsna--Lord Krsna; apani--Himself; nadiyaya--in Nadia.
Thinking thus, the Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna Himself, descended at Nadia early in the Age of Kali.
The prathama-sandhya is the beginning of the age. According to astronomical calculation, the age is divided into twelve parts. The first of these twelve divisions is known as the prathama-sandhya. The prathama-sandhya and sesa-sandhya, the last division of the preceding age, form the junction of the two ages. According to the Surya-siddhanta, the prathama-sandhya of Kali-yuga lasts 36,000 solar years. Lord Caitanya appeared in the prathama-sandhya after 4,586 solar years of Kali-yuga had passed.
caitanya-simhera--of the lionlike Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; navadvipe--at Navadvipa; avatara--the incarnation; simha-griva--having the neck of a lion; simha-virya--the strength of a lion; simhera hunkara--the roar of a lion.
Thus the lionlike Lord Caitanya has appeared in Navadvipa. He has the shoulders of a lion, the powers of a lion, and the loud voice of a lion.
sei simha vasuk jivera hrdaya-kandare
kalmasa-dvirada nase yanhara hunkare
sei--that; simha--lion; vasuk--let Him sit; jivera--of the living entities; hrdaya--of the heart; kandare--in the cavern; kalmasa--of sins; dvi-rada--the elephant; nase--destroys; yanhara--of whom; hunkare--the roar.
May that lion be seated in the core of the heart of every living being. Thus with His resounding roar may He drive away one's elephantine vices.
prathama lilaya tanra 'visvambhara' nama
bhakti-rase bharila, dharila bhuta-grama
prathama--first; lilaya--in the pastimes; tanra--of Him; visvambhara nama--the name Visvambhara; bhakti-rase--with the mellow of devotional service; bharila--He filled; dharila--saved; bhuta-grama--all the living entities.
In His early pastimes He is known as Visvambhara because He floods the world with the nectar of devotion and thus saves the living beings.
dubhrn dhatura artha----posana, dharana
pusila, dharila prema diya tri-bhuvana
dubhrn--known as dubhrn (bhr); dhatura--of the verbal root; artha--the meaning; posana--nourishing; dharana--maintaining; pusila--nourished; dharila--maintained; prema diya--distributing love of God; tri-bhuvana--in the three worlds.
The verbal root "dubhrn" [which is the root of the word "visvambhara"] indicates nourishing and maintaining. He [Lord Caitanya] nourishes and maintains the three worlds by distributing love of God.
sesa-lilaya dhare nama 'sri-krsna-caitanya'
sri-krsna janaye saba visva kaila dhanya
sesa-lilaya--in His final pastimes; dhare--He held; nama--the name; sri-krsna-caitanya--Sri Krsna Caitanya; sri-krsna--about Lord Krsna; janaye--He taught; saba--all; visva--the world; kaila--made; dhanya--fortunate.
In His later pastimes He is known as Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya. He blesses the whole world by teaching about the name and fame of Lord Sri Krsna.
Lord Caitanya remained a householder only until His twenty-fourth year had passed. Then He entered the renounced order and remained manifest in this material world until His forty-eighth year. Therefore sesa-lila, or the final portion of His activities, lasted twenty-four years.
Some so-called Vaisnavas say that the renounced order of life is not accepted in the Vaisnava sampradaya, or disciplic succession, from Lord Caitanya. This is not a very intelligent proposition. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu took the sannyasa order from Sripada Kesava Bharati, who belonged to the Sankara sect, which approves of only ten names for sannyasis. Long before the advent of Sripada Sankaracarya, however, the sannyasa order existed in the Vaisnava line of Visnusvami. In the Visnusvami Vaisnava sampradaya, there are ten different kinds of sannyasa names and 108 different names for sannyasis who accept the tri-danda, the triple staff of sannyasa. This is approved by the Vedic rules. Therefore Vaisnava sannyasa was existent even before the appearance of Sankaracarya, although those who know nothing about Vaisnava sannyasa unnecessarily declare that there is no sannyasa in the Vaisnava sampradaya.
During the time of Lord Caitanya, the influence of Sankaracarya in society was very strong. People thought that one could accept sannyasa only in the disciplic succession of Sankaracarya. Lord Caitanya could have performed His missionary activities as a householder, but He found householder life an obstruction to His mission. Therefore He decided to accept the renounced order, sannyasa. Since His acceptance of sannyasa was also designed to attract public attention, Lord Caitanya, not wishing to disturb the social convention, took the renounced order of life from a sannyasi in the disciplic succession of Sankaracarya, although sannyasa was also sanctioned in the Vaisnava sampradaya.
In the Sankara-sampradaya there are ten different names awarded to sannyasis: (1) Tirtha, (2) Asrama, (3) Vana, (4) Aranya, (5) Giri, (6) Parvata, (7) Sagara, (8) Sarasvati, (9) Bharati and (10) Puri. Before one enters sannyasa, he has one of the various names for a brahmacari, the assistant to a sannyasi. Sannyasis with the titles Tirtha and Asrama generally stay at Dvaraka, and their brahmacari name is Svarupa. Those known by the names Vana and Aranya stay at Purusottama, or Jagannatha Puri, and their brahmacari name is Prakasa. Those with the names Giri, Parvata and Sagara generally stay at Badarikasrama, and their brahmacari name is Ananda. Those with the titles Sarasvati, Bharati and Puri usually live at Srngeri in South India, and their brahmacari name is Caitanya.
Sripada Sankaracarya established four monasteries in India, in the four directions north, south, east and west, and he entrusted them to four sannyasis who were his disciples. Now there are hundreds of branch monasteries under these four principal monasteries, and although there is an official symmetry among them, there are many differences in their dealings. The four different sects of these monasteries are known as Anandavara, Bhogavara, Kitavara and Bhumivara, and in course of time they have developed different ideas and different slogans.
According to the regulation of the disciplic succession, one who wishes to enter the renounced order in Sankara's sect must first be trained as a brahmacari under a bona fide sannyasi, The brahmacari's name is ascertained according to the group to which the sannyasi belongs. Lord Caitanya accepted sannyasa from Kesava Bharati. When He first approached Kesava Bharati, He was accepted as a brahmacari with the name Sri Krsna Caitanya Brahmacari. After He took sannyasa, He preferred to keep the name Krsna Caitanya.
The great authorities in the disciplic succession had not offered to explain why Lord Caitanya refused to take the name Bharati after He took sannyasa from a Bharati, until Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Maharaja volunteered the explanation that because a sannyasi in the Sankara-sampradaya thinks that he has become the Supreme, Lord Caitanya, wanting to avoid such a misconception, kept the name Sri Krsna Caitanya, placing Himself as an eternal servitor. A brahmacari is supposed to serve the spiritual master; therefore He did not negate that relationship of servitude to His spiritual master. Accepting such a position is favorable for the relationship between the disciple and the spiritual master.
The authentic biographies also mention that Lord Caitanya accepted the danda (rod) and begging pot, symbolic of the sannyasa order, at the time He took sannyasa.
tanra--of Him; yuga-avatara--incarnation for the age; jani'--knowing; garga--Garga Muni; mahasaya--the great personality; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; nama-karane--in the name-giving ceremony; kariyache--made; nirnaya--ascertainment.
Knowing Him [Lord Caitanya] to be the incarnation for Kali-yuga, Garga Muni, during the naming ceremony of Krsna, predicted His appearance.
asan varnas trayo hy asya
grhnato 'nu-yugam tanuh
suklo raktas tatha pita
idanim krsnatam gatah
asan--were; varnah--colors; trayah--three; hi--certainly; asya--of this one; grhnatah--who is manifesting; anu-yugam--according to the age; tanuh--bodies; suklah--white; raktah--red; tatha--thus; pitah--yellow; idanim--now; krsnatam--blackness; gatah--obtained.
"This boy [Krsna] has three other colors--white, red and yellow--as He appears in different ages. Now He has appeared in a transcendental blackish color."
This is a verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.13).
sukla, rakta, pita-varna----ei tina dyuti
satya-treta-kali-kale dharena sri-pati
sukla--white; rakta--red; pita-varna--the color yellow; ei--these; tina--three; dyuti--lusters; satya--in Satya-yuga; treta--in Treta-yuga; kali-kale--in the Age of Kali; dharena--manifests; sri-pati--the husband of the goddess of fortune.
White, red and yellow--these are the three bodily lusters that the Lord, the husband of the goddess of fortune, assumes in the ages of Satya, Treta and Kali respectively.
idanim dvapare tinho haila krsna-varna
ei saba sastragama-puranera marma
idanim--now; dvapare--in the Dvapara-yuga; tinho--He; haila--was; krsna-varna--blackish color; ei--these; saba--all; sastra-agama--and Vedic literatures; puranera--of the Puranas; marma--the core.
Now, in the Dvapara-yuga, the Lord had descended in a blackish hue. This is the essence of the statements in the Puranas and other Vedic literatures with reference to the context.
dvapare bhagavan syamah
sri-vatsadibhir ankais ca
dvapare--in the Dvapara-yuga; bhagavan--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; syamah--blackish; pita-vasah--having yellow clothes; nija--own; ayudhah--having weapons; srivatsa-adibhih--such as Srivatsa; ankaih--by bodily markings; ca--and; laksanaih--by external characteristics such as the Kaustubha jewel; upalaksitah--characterized.
"In the Dvapara-yuga the Personality of Godhead appears in a blackish hue. He is dressed in yellow, He holds His own weapons, and He is decorated with the Kaustubha jewel and marks of Srivatsa. This is how His symptoms are described."
This is a verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.5.27), spoken by Saint Karabhajana, one of the nine royal mystics who explained to King Nimi the different features of the Lord in different ages.
kali-yuge--in the Age of Kali; yuga-dharma--the religious practice for the age; namera--of the holy name; pracara--propagation; tathi--this; lagi'--for; pita-varna--having a yellow color; caitanya-avatara--the incarnation of Lord Caitanya.
The religious practice for the Age of Kali is to broadcast the glories of the holy name. Only for this purpose has the Lord, in a yellow color, descended as Lord Caitanya.
In this Age of Kali the practical system of religion for everyone is the chanting of the name of Godhead. This was introduced in this age by Lord Caitanya. Bhakti-yoga actually begins with the chanting of the holy name, as confirmed by Madhvacarya in his commentary on the Mundaka Upanisad. He quotes this verse from the Narayana-samhita:
dvapariyair janair visnuh
pancaratrais tu kevalaih
kalau tu nama-matrena
pujyate bhagavan harih
"In the Dvapara-yuga people should worship Lord Visnu only by the regulative principles of the Narada-pancaratra and other such authorized books. In the Age of Kali, however, people should simply chant the holy names of the Supreme Personality of Godhead." The Hare Krsna mantra is specifically mentioned in many Upanisads, such as the Kali-santarana Upanisad, where it is said:"
hare krsna hare krsna
krsna krsna hare hare
hare rama hare rama
rama rama hare hare
"After searching through all the Vedic literature one cannot find a method of religion more sublime for this age than the chanting of Hare Krsna."
tapta-hema-sama-kanti, prakanda sarira
nava-megha jini kantha-dhvani ye gambhira
tapta-hema--as molten gold; sama-kanti--same luster; prakanda--enormous; sarira--body; nava-megha--new clouds; jini--conquering; kantha-dhvani--the sound of the voice; ye--that; gambhira--deep.
The luster of His expansive body resembles molten gold. The deep sound of His voice conquers the thundering of newly assembled clouds.
dairghya-vistare yei apanara hata
cari hasta haya 'maha-purusa' vikhyata
dairghya--in length; vistare--and in breadth; yei--who; apanara--of his own; hata--hand; cari--four; hasta--cubits; haya--is; maha-purusa--as a great personality; vikhyata--celebrated.
One who measures four cubits in height and in breadth by his own hand is celebrated as a great personality.
'nyagrodha-parimandala' haya tanra nama
nyagrodha-parimandala-tanu caitanya guna-dhama
nyagrodha-parimandala--nyagrodha-parimandala; haya--is; tanra--of him; nama--the name; nyagrodha-parimandala--nyagrodha-parimandala; tanu--having such a body; caitanya--Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; guna-dhama--the abode of good qualities.
Such a person is called nyagrodha-parimandala. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who personifies all good qualities, has the body of a nyagrodha-parimandala.
No one other than the Supreme Lord Himself, who has engaged the conditioned souls by His own illusory energy, can possess these bodily features. These features certainly indicate an incarnation of Visnu and no one else.
a-janu-lambita-bhuja--arms that reach the knees; kamala-locana--with lotus eyes; tila-phula--the blossom of the sesame plant; jini--conquering; nasa--whose nose; sudha-amsu-vadana--whose face is like the moon.
His arms are long enough to reach His knees, His eyes are just like lotus flowers, His nose is like a sesame flower, and His face is as beautiful as the moon.
santa, danta, krsna-bhakti-nistha-parayana
bhakta-vatsala, susila, sarva-bhute sama
santa--peaceful; danta--controlled; krsna-bhakti--to the service of Lord Krsna; nistha-parayana--fully devoted; bhakta-vatsala--affectionate toward the devotees; su-sila--good character; sarva-bhute--to all living beings; sama--equal.
He is peaceful, self-controlled and fully devoted to the transcendental service of Lord Sri Krsna. He is affectionate toward His devotees, He is gentle, and He is equally disposed toward all living beings.
candanera angada-bala, candana-bhusana
nrtya-kale pari' karena krsna-sankirtana
candanera--of sandalwood; angada--and armlets; bala--bangles; candana--of sandalwood pulp; bhusana--decorations; nrtya-kale--at the time of dancing; pari'--putting on; karena--does; krsna-sankirtana--congregational chanting of the name of Krsna.
He is decorated with sandalwood bangles and armlets and anointed with the pulp of sandalwood. He especially wears these decorations to dance in sri-krsna-sankirtana.
ei saba guna lana muni vaisampayana
sahasra-name kaila tanra nama-ganana
ei--these; saba--all; guna--qualities; lana--taking; muni--the sage; vaisampayana--named Vaisampayana; sahasra-name--in the Visnu-sahasra-nama; kaila--did; tanra--of Him; nama-ganana--counting of the name.
Recording all these qualities of Lord Caitanya, the sage Vaisampayana included His name in the Visnu-sahasra-nama.
dui lila caitanyera----adi ara sesa
dui lilaya cari cari nama visesa
suvarna--of gold; varnah--having the color; hema-angah--whose body was like molten gold; vara-angah--having a most beautiful body; candana-angadi--whose body was smeared with sandalwood; sannyasa-krt--practicing the renounced order of life; samah--equipoised; santah--peaceful; nistha--devotion; santi--and of peace; parayanah--the highest resort.
"In His early pastimes He appears as a householder with a golden complexion. His limbs are beautiful, and His body, smeared with the pulp of sandalwood, seems like molten gold. In His later pastimes He accepts the sannyasa order, and He is equipoised and peaceful. He is the highest abode of peace and devotion, for He silences the impersonalist nondevotees."
This is a verse from the Mahabharata (Dana-dharma, Visnu-sahasra-nama-stotra). In his commentary on the Visnu-sahasra-nama called the Namartha-sudha, Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana, commenting upon this verse, asserts that Lord Caitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead according to the evidence of the Upanisads. He explains that suvarna-varnah means a golden complexion. He also quotes the Vedic injunction yada pasyah pasyate rukma-varnam kartaram isam purusam brahma-yonim (Mundaka Upanisad 3.1.3). Rukma-varnam kartaram isam refers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead as having a complexion the color of molten gold. Purusam means the Supreme Lord, and brahma-yonim indicates that He is also the Supreme Brahman. This evidence, too, proves that Lord Caitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krsna. Another meaning of the description of the Lord as having a golden hue is that Lord Caitanya's personality is as fascinating as gold is attractive. Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana has explained that the word varanga means "exquisitely beautiful."
Lord Caitanya accepted sannyasa, leaving aside His householder life, to preach His mission. He has equanimity in different senses. First, He describes the confidential truth of the Personality of Godhead, and second, He satisfies everyone by knowledge and attachment to Krsna. He is peaceful because He renounces all topics not related to the service of Krsna. Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana has explained that the word nistha indicates His being rigidly fixed in chanting the holy name of Sri Krsna. Lord Caitanya subdued all disturbing opponents of devotional service, especially the monists, who are actually averse to the personal feature of the Supreme Lord.
vyakta kari' bhagavate kahe bara bara
kali-yuge dharma----nama-sankirtana sara
vyakta--evident; kari'--making; bhagavate--in Srimad-Bhagavatam; kahe--they say; bara bara--time and time again; kali-yuge--in the Age of Kali; dharma--the religion; nama-sankirtana--congregational chanting of the holy name; sara--the essence.
In Srimad-Bhagavatam it is repeatedly and clearly said that the essence of religion in the Age of Kali is the chanting of the holy name of Krsna.
iti dvapara urv-isa
kalav api yatha srnu
iti--thus; dvapare--in the Dvapara Age; uru-isa--O King; stuvanti--they praise; jagat-isvaram--the Lord of the universe; nana--various; tantra--of scriptures; vidhanena--by the regulations; kalau--in the Age of Kali; api--also; yatha--in which manner; srnu--please hear.
"O King, in this way people in Dvapara-yuga worshiped the Lord of the universe. In Kali-yuga they also worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the regulations of the revealed scriptures. Kindly now hear of that from me."
This verse is spoken by Saint Karabhajana in Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.5.31).
yajanti hi su-medhasah
krsna-varnam--repeating the syllables krs-na; tvisa--with a luster; akrsnam--not black (golden); sa-anga--along with associates; upanga--servitors; astra--weapons; parsadam--confidential companions; yajnaih--by sacrifice; sankirtana-prayaih--consisting chiefly of congregational chanting; yajanti--they worship; hi--certainly; su-medhasah--intelligent persons.
"In the Age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the name of Krsna. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Krsna Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions."
This text is from Srimad-Bhagavatam (11.5.32). Srila Jiva Gosvami has explained this verse in his commentary on the Bhagavatam, known as the Krama-sandarbha, wherein he says that Lord Krsna also appears with a golden complexion. That golden Lord Krsna is Lord Caitanya, who is worshiped by intelligent men in this age. That is confirmed in Srimad-Bhagavatam by Garga Muni, who said that although the child Krsna was blackish, He also appears in three other colors--red, white and yellow. He exhibited His white and red complexions in the Satya and Treta ages respectively. He did not exhibit the remaining color, yellow-gold, until He appeared as Lord Caitanya, who is known as Gaura Hari.
Srila Jiva Gosvami explains that krsna-varnam means Sri Krsna Caitanya. Krsna-varna and Krsna Caitanya are equivalent. The name Krsna appears with both Lord Krsna and Lord Caitanya Krsna. Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but He always engages in describing Krsna and thus enjoys transcendental bliss by chanting and remembering His name and form. Lord Krsna Himself appears as Lord Caitanya to preach the highest gospel.
Lord Caitanya always chants the holy name of Krsna and describes it also, and because He is Krsna Himself, whoever meets Him will automatically chant the holy name of Krsna and later describe it to others. He injects one with transcendental Krsna consciousness, which merges the chanter in transcendental bliss. In all respects, therefore, He appears before everyone as Krsna, either by personality or by sound. Simply by seeing Lord Caitanya one at once remembers Lord Krsna. One may therefore accept Him as visnu-tattva. In other words, Lord Caitanya is Lord Krsna Himself.
Sangopangastra-parsadam further indicates that Lord Caitanya is Lord Krsna. His body is always decorated with ornaments of sandalwood and with sandalwood paste. By His superexcellent beauty He subdues all the people of the age. In other descents the Lord sometimes used weapons to defeat the demoniac, but in this age the Lord subdues them with His all-attractive figure as Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Srila Jiva Gosvami explains that His beauty is His astra, or weapon, to subdue the demons. Because He is all-attractive, it is to be understood that all the demigods lived with Him as His companions. His acts were uncommon and His associates wonderful. When He propagated the sankirtana movement, He attracted many great scholars and acaryas, especially in Bengal and Orissa. Lord Caitanya is always accompanied by His best associates like Lord Nityananda, Advaita, Gadadhara and Srivasa.
Srila Jiva Gosvami cites a verse from the Vedic literature which says that there is no necessity of performing sacrificial demonstrations or ceremonial functions. He comments that instead of engaging in such external, pompous exhibitions, all people, regardless of caste, color or creed, can assemble together and chant Hare Krsna to worship Lord Caitanya. Krsna-varnam tvisakrsnam indicates that prominence should be given to the name of Krsna. Lord Caitanya taught Krsna consciousness and chanted the name of Krsna. Therefore, to worship Lord Caitanya, everyone should together chant the maha-mantra--Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare. Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare. To propagate worship in churches, temples or mosques is not possible, because people have lost interest in that. But anywhere and everywhere, people can chant Hare Krsna. Thus worshiping Lord Caitanya, they can perform the highest activity and fulfill the highest religious purpose of satisfying the Supreme Lord.
Srila Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya, a famous disciple of Lord Caitanya, said, "The principle of transcendental devotional service having been lost, Sri Krsna Caitanya has appeared to deliver again the process of devotion. He is so kind that He is distributing love of Krsna. Everyone should be attracted more and more to His lotus feet, as humming bees are attracted to a lotus flower."
suna, bhai, ei saba caitanya-mahima
ei sloke kahe tanra mahimara sima
The two syllables "krs-na" are always in His mouth; or, He constantly describes Krsna with great pleasure.
krsna-varna-sabdera artha dui ta pramana
krsna vinu tanra mukhe nahi aise ana
krsna-varna-sabdera--of the word krsna-varna; artha--the meaning; dui--two; ta--certainly; pramana--examples; krsna--Krsna; vinu--except for; tanra--of Him; mukhe--in the mouth; nahi aise--does not come; ana--anything else.
These are two meanings of the word "krsna-varna." Indeed, nothing else but Krsna issues from His mouth.
keha tanre bale yadi krsna-varana
ara visesane tara kare nivarana
If someone tries to describe Him as being of blackish complexion, the next adjective [tvisa akrsnam] immediately restricts him.
deha-kantye haya tenho akrsna-varana
akrsna-varane kahe pita-varana
deha-kantye--in the luster of the body; haya--is; tenho--He; akrsna--not black; varana--the color; akrsna-varane--by a color that is not blackish; kahe--one means; pita--yellow; varana--the color.
His complexion is certainly not blackish. Indeed, His not being blackish indicates that His complexion is yellow.
kalau yam vidvamsah sphutam abhiyajante dyuti-bharad
akrsnangam krsnam makha-vidhibhir utkirtana-mayaih
upasyam ca prahur yam akhila-caturthasrama-jusam
sa devas caitanyakrtir atitaram nah krpayatu
kalau--in the Age of Kali; yam--Him whom; vidvamsah--the learned men; sphutam--clearly manifested; abhiyajante--worship; dyuti-bharat--due to an abundance of bodily luster; akrsna-angam--whose body is not blackish; krsnam--Lord Krsna; makha-vidhibhih--by the performances of sacrifice; utkirtana-mayaih--consisting of loud chanting of the holy name; upasyam--worshipable object; ca--and; prahuh--they said; yam--whom; akhila--all; caturtha-asrama-jusam--of those who are in the fourth order of life (sannyasa); sah--He; devah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; caitanya-akrtih--having the form of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; atitaram--excessively; nah--unto us; krpayatu--let Him show His mercy.
"By performing the sacrifice of congregational chanting of the holy name, learned scholars in the Age of Kali worship Lord Krsna, who is now non-blackish because of the great upsurge of the feelings of Srimati Radharani. He is the only worshipable Deity for the paramahamsas, who have attained the highest stage of the fourth order [sannyasa]. May that Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Caitanya, show us His great causeless mercy."
This text, as well as text 63 and text 66, is from the Stava-mala of Srila Rupa Gosvami.
The greatest ignorance consists of activities, whether religious or irreligious, that are opposed to devotional service. They are to be known as sins [kalmasa].
bahu tuli' hari bali' prema-drstye caya
kariya kalmasa nasa premete bhasaya
bahu tuli'--raising the arms; hari bali'--chanting the holy name; prema-drstye--with His glance of deep love; caya--He looks; kariya--causing; kalmasa--to sins; nasa--destruction; premete--in love of God; bhasaya--He floods.
Raising His arms, chanting the holy name and looking upon all with deep love, He drives away all sins and floods everyone with love of Godhead.
smitalokah sokam harati jagatam yasya parito
giram tu prarambhah kusala-patalim pallavayati
padalambhah kam va pranayati na hi prema-nivaham
sa devas caitanyakrtir atitaram nah krpayatu
smita--smiling; alokah--glance; sokam--the bereavement; harati--takes away; jagatam--of the world; yasya--whose; paritah--all around; giram--of the speech; tu--also; prarambhah--the beginning; kusala--of auspiciousness; patalim--the mass; pallavayati--causes to blossom; pada-alambhah--the taking hold of the lotus feet; kam va--what possibly; pranayati--leads to; na--not; hi--certainly; prema-nivaham--quantity of love of Godhead; sah--He; devah--the Supreme Personality of Godhead; caitanya-akrtih--having the form of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; atitaram--excessively; nah--unto us; krpayatu--may He show His mercy.
"May the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the form of Lord Sri Caitanya bestow His causeless mercy upon us. His smiling glance at once drives away all the bereavements of the world, and His very words enliven the auspicious creepers of devotion by expanding their leaves. Taking shelter of His lotus feet invokes transcendental love of God at once."
sri-anga, sri-mukha yei kare darasana
tara papa-ksaya haya, paya prema-dhana
sri-anga--His body; sri-mukha--His face; yei--anyone who; kare--does; darasana--seeing; tara--of him; papa-ksaya--destruction of sins; haya--there is; paya--obtains; prema-dhana--the wealth of love of Godhead.
Anyone who looks upon His beautiful body or beautiful face becomes freed from all sins and obtains the wealth of love of Godhead.
anya avatare saba sainya-sastra sange
caitanya-krsnera sainya anga-upange
anya--other; avatare--in incarnations; saba--all; sainya--soldiers; sastra--and weapons; sange--along with; caitanya-krsnera--of Lord Krsna as Lord Caitanya; sainya--soldiers; anga--plenary parts; upange--and associates.
In other incarnations the Lord descended with armies and weapons, but in this incarnation His soldiers are His plenary parts and associates.
sadopasyah sriman dhrta-manuja-kayaih pranayitam
vahadbhir gir-vanair girisa-paramesthi-prabhrtibhih
sva-bhaktebhyah suddham nija-bhajana-mudram upadisan
sa caitanyah kim me punar api drsor yasyati padam
sada--always; upasyah--worshipable; sriman--beautiful; dhrta--who accepted; manuja-kayaih--the bodies of men; pranayitam--love; vahadbhih--who were bearing; gih-vanaih--by the demigods; girisa--Lord Siva; paramesthi--Lord Brahma; prabhrtibhih--headed by; sva-bhaktebhyah--unto His own devotees; suddham--pure; nija-bhajana--of His own worship; mudram--the mark; upadisan--instructing; sah--He; caitanyah--Lord Caitanya; kim--what; me--my; punah--again; api--certainly; drsoh--of the two eyes; yasyati--He will go; padam--to the abode.
"Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is always the most worshipable Deity of the demigods, including Lord Siva and Lord Brahma, who came in the garb of ordinary men, bearing love for Him. He instructs His own pure devotional service to His own devotees. Will He again be the object of my vision?"
angopanga astra kare sva-karya-sadhana
'anga'-sabdera artha ara suna diya mana
anga-upanga--plenary parts and associates; astra--weapons; kare--do; sva-karya--of their own business; sadhana--as the accomplishment; anga-sabdera--of the word anga; artha--the meaning; ara--another; suna--please hear; diya--giving; mana--the mind.
His plenary parts and associates perform the work of weapons as their own specific duties. Please hear from me another meaning of the word "anga."
'anga'-sabde amsa kahe sastra-paramana
angera avayava 'upanga'-vyakhyana
anga-sabde--by the word anga, or limb; amsa--part; kahe--says; sastra--of the scriptures; paramana--the evidence; angera--of the limb; avayava--the constituent part; upanga-vyakhyana--the exposition of the word upanga.
According to the evidence of the revealed scriptures, a bodily limb [anga] is also called a part [amsa], and a part of a limb is called a partial part [upanga].
narayanas tvam na hi sarva-dehinam
narayano 'ngam nara-bhu-jalayanat
tac capi satyam na tavaiva maya
narayanah--Lord Narayana; tvam--You; na--not; hi--certainly; sarva--all; dehinam--of the embodied beings; atma--the Supersoul; asi--You are; adhisa--O Lord; akhila-loka--of all the worlds; saksi--the witness; narayanah--known as Narayana; angam--plenary portion; nara--of Nara; bhu--born; jala--in the water; ayanat--due to the place of refuge; tat--that; ca--and; api--certainly; satyam--highest truth; na--not; tava--Your; eva--at all; maya--the illusory energy.
"O Lord of lords, You are the seer of all creation. You are indeed everyone's dearest life. Are You not, therefore, my father, Narayana? 'Narayana' refers to one whose abode is in the water born from Nara [Garbhodakasayi Visnu], and that Narayana is Your plenary portion. All Your plenary portions are transcendental. They are absolute and are not creations of maya."
This text was spoken to Lord Krsna by Brahma in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.14).
jala-sayi antar-yami yei narayana
seho tomara amsa, tumi mula narayana
jala-sayi--lying in the water; antah-yami--indwelling Supersoul; yei--He who; narayana--Lord Narayana; seho--He; tomara--Your; amsa--plenary portion; tumi--You; mula--original; narayana--Narayana.
The manifestation of the Narayana who predominates in everyone's heart, as well as the Narayana who lives in the waters [Karana, Garbha and Ksira], is Your plenary portion. You are therefore the original Narayana.
'anga'-sabde amsa kahe, seho satya haya
maya-karya nahe----saba cid-ananda-maya
anga-sabde--by the word anga; amsa--plenary portion; kahe--one means; seho--that; satya--the truth; haya--is; maya--of the material energy; karya--the work; nahe--is not; saba--all; cit-ananda-maya--full of knowledge and bliss.
The word "anga" indeed refers to plenary portions. Such manifestations should never be considered products of material nature, for they are all transcendental, full of knowledge and full of bliss.
In the material world, if a fragment is taken from an original object, the original object is reduced by the removal of that fragment. But the Supreme Personality of Godhead is not at all affected by the actions of maya. The Isopanisad says:
om purnam adah purnam idam
purnat purnam udacyate
purnasya purnam adaya
"The Personality of Godhead is perfect and complete, and because He is completely perfect, all emanations from Him, such as this phenomenal world, are perfectly equipped as complete wholes. Whatever is produced of the complete whole is also complete in itself. Because He is the complete whole, even though so many complete units emanate from Him, He remains the complete balance." (Sri Isopanisad, Invocation)
In the realm of the Absolute, one plus one equals one, and one minus one equals one. Therefore one should not conceive of a fragment of the Supreme Lord in the material sense. In the spiritual world there is no influence of the material energy or material calculations of fragments. In the Fifteenth Chapter of the Bhagavad-gita, the Lord says that the living entities are His parts and parcels. There are innumerable living entities throughout the material and spiritual universes, but still Lord Krsna is full in Himself. To think that God has lost His personality because His many parts and parcels are distributed all over the universe is an illusion. That is a material calculation. Such calculations are possible only under the influence of the material energy, maya. In the spiritual world the material energy is conspicuous only by its absence.
In the category of visnu-tattva there is no loss of power from one expansion to the next, any more than there is a loss of illumination as one candle kindles another. Thousands may be kindled by an original candle, and all will have the same candle power. In this way it is to be understood that although all the visnu-tattvas, from Krsna and Lord Caitanya to Rama, Nrsimha, Varaha and so on, appear with different features in different ages, all are equally invested with supreme potency.
Demigods such as Lord Brahma and Lord Siva come in contact with the material energy, and their power and potency are therefore of different gradations. All the incarnations of Visnu, however, are equal in potency, for the influence of maya cannot even approach Them.
advaita, nityananda----caitanyera dui anga
angera avayava-gana kahiye upanga
advaita--Advaita Acarya; nityananda--Lord Nityananda; caitanyera--of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; dui--two; anga--limbs; angera--of the limbs; avayava-gana--the constituent parts; kahiye--I say; upanga--parts.
Sri Advaita Prabhu and Sri Nityananda Prabhu are both plenary portions of Lord Caitanya. Thus They are the limbs [angas] of His body. The parts of these two limbs are called the upangas.
angopanga tiksna astra prabhura sahite
sei saba astra haya pasanda dalite
anga-upanga--plenary portions and parts; tiksna--sharp; astra--weapons; prabhura sahite--along with Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sei--these; saba--all; astra--weapons; haya--are; pasanda--the atheists; dalite--to trample.
Thus the Lord is equipped with sharp weapons in the forms of His parts and plenary portions. All these weapons are competent enough to crush the faithless atheists.
The word pasanda is very significant here. One who compares the Supreme Personality of Godhead to the demigods is known as a pasanda. Pasandas try to bring the Supreme Lord down to a mundane level. Sometimes they create their own imaginary God or accept an ordinary person as God and advertise him as equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They are so foolish that they present someone as the next incarnation of Lord Caitanya or Krsna although His activities are all contradictory to those of a genuine incarnation, and thus they fool the innocent public. One who is intelligent and who studies the characteristics of the Supreme Personality of Godhead with reference to the Vedic context cannot be bewildered by the pasandas.
Pasandas, or atheists, cannot understand the pastimes of the Supreme Lord or transcendental loving service to the Lord. They think that devotional service is no better than ordinary fruitive activities (karma). As the Bhagavad-gita (4.8) confirms, however, the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His devotees, saving the righteous and chastising the miscreants (paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam), always curb these nonsensical atheists. Miscreants always want to deny the Supreme Personality of Godhead and put stumbling blocks in the path of devotional service. The Lord sends His bona fide representatives and appears Himself to curb this nonsense.
nityananda gosani--Lord Nityananda Gosani; saksat--directly; hala-dhara--Lord Balarama, the holder of the plow; advaita acarya gosani--Sri Advaita Acarya Gosani; saksat--directly; isvara--the Personality of Godhead.
Sri Nityananda Gosani is directly Haladhara [Lord Balarama], and Advaita Acarya is the Personality of Godhead Himself.
srivasadi parisada sainya sange lana
dui sena-pati bule kirtana kariya
srivasa-adi--Srivasa and others; parisada--associates; sainya--soldiers; sange--along with; lana--taking; dui--two; sena-pati--captains; bule--travel; kirtana kariya--chanting the holy name.
These two captains, with Their soldiers such as Srivasa Thakura, travel everywhere, chanting the holy name of the Lord.
pasanda-dalana-vana nityananda raya
acarya-hunkare papa-pasandi palaya
pasanda-dalana--of trampling the atheists; vana--having the feature; nityananda--Lord Nityananda; raya--the honorable; acarya--of Advaita Acarya; hunkare--by the war cry; papa--sins; pasandi--and atheists; palaya--run away.
Lord Nityananda's very features indicate that He is the subduer of the unbelievers. All sins and unbelievers flee from the loud shouts of Advaita Acarya.
sankirtana-yajne tanre bhaje, sei dhanya
sankirtana-pravartaka--the initiator of congregational chanting; sri-krsna-caitanya--Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; sankirtana--of congregational chanting; yajne--by the sacrifice; tanre--Him; bhaje--worships; sei--he; dhanya--fortunate.
Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya is the initiator of sankirtana [congregational chanting of the holy name of the Lord]. One who worships Him through sankirtana is fortunate indeed.
sei ta' sumedha, ara kubuddhi samsara
sarva-yajna haite krsna-nama-yajna sara
sei--he; ta'--certainly; su-medha--intelligent; ara--others; ku-buddhi--poor understanding; samsara--in the material world; sarva-yajna haite--than all other sacrifices; krsna-nama--of chanting the name of Lord Krsna; yajna--the sacrifice; sara--the best.
Such a person is truly intelligent, whereas others, who have but a poor fund of knowledge, must endure the cycle of repeated birth and death. Of all sacrificial performances, the chanting of the Lord's holy name is the most sublime.
Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the father and inaugurator of the sankirtana movement. One who worships Him by sacrificing his life, money, intelligence and words for the sankirtana movement is recognized by the Lord and endowed with His blessings. All others may be said to be foolish, for of all sacrifices in which a man may apply his energy, a sacrifice made for the sankirtana movement is the most glorious.
koti asvamedha eka krsna nama sama
yei kahe, se pasandi, dande tare yama
One who says that ten million asvamedha sacrifices are equal to the chanting of the holy name of Lord Krsna is undoubtedly an atheist. He is sure to be punished by Yamaraja.
In the list of the ten kinds of offenses in chanting the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hare Krsna, the eighth offense is dharma-vrata-tyaga-hutadi-sarva-subha-kriya-samyam api pramadah. One should never consider the chanting of the holy name of Godhead equal to pious activities like giving charity to brahmanas or saintly persons, opening charitable educational institutions, distributing free food and so on. The results of pious activities do not equal the results of chanting the holy name of Krsna.
The Vedic scriptures say:
go-koti-danam grahane khagasya
govinda-kirter na samam satamsaih
"Even if one distributes ten million cows in charity during an eclipse of the sun, lives at the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna for millions of years, or gives a mountain of gold in sacrifice to the brahmanas, he does not earn one hundredth part of the merit derived from chanting Hare Krsna." In other words, one who accepts the chanting of Hare Krsna to be some kind of pious activity is completely misled. Of course, it is pious; but the real fact is that Krsna and His name, being transcendental, are far above all mundane pious activity. Pious activity is on the material platform, but chanting of the holy name of Krsna is completely on the spiritual plane. Therefore, although pasandis do not understand this, pious activity can never compare to the chanting of the holy name.
bhagavata-sandarbha-granthera--of the book called Bhagavata-sandarbha; mangala-acarane--in the auspicious introduction; e-sloka--this verse; jiva-gosani--Jiva Gosvami; kariyachena--has made; vyakhyane--in explaining.
In the auspicious introduction of Bhagavata-sandarbha, Srila Jiva Gosvami has given the following verse as an explanation.
antah krsnam bahir gauram
kalau sankirtanadyaih sma
antah--internally; krsnam--Lord Krsna; bahih--externally; gauram--fair-colored; darsita--displayed; anga--limbs; adi--beginning with; vaibhavam--expansions; kalau--in the Age of Kali; sankirtana-adyaih--by congregational chanting, etc.; sma--certainly; krsna-caitanyam--unto Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; asritah--sheltered.
"I take shelter of Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who is outwardly of a fair complexion but is inwardly Krsna Himself. In this Age of Kali He displays His expansions [His angas and upangas] by performing congregational chanting of the holy name of the Lord."
Srila Jiva Gosvami has placed the verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam quoted in text 52 (krsna-varnam tvisakrsnam) as the auspicious introduction to his Bhagavata-sandarbha, or Sat-sandarbha. He has composed this text (81), which is, in effect, an explanation of the Bhagavatam verse, as the second verse of the same work. The verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam was enunciated by Karabhajana, one of the nine great sages, and it is elaborately explained by the Sarva-samvadini, Jiva Gosvami's commentary on his own Sat-sandarbha.
Antah krsna refers to one who is always thinking of Krsna. This attitude is a predominant feature of Srimati Radharani. Even though many devotees always think of Krsna, none can surpass the gopis, among whom Radharani is the leader in thinking of Krsna. Radharani's Krsna consciousness surpasses that of all other devotees. Lord Caitanya accepted the position of Srimati Radharani to understand Krsna; therefore He was always thinking of Krsna in the same way as Radharani. By thinking of Lord Krsna, He always overlapped Krsna.
Sri Krsna Caitanya, who was outwardly very fair, with a complexion like molten gold, simultaneously manifested His eternal associates, opulences, expansions and incarnations. He preached the process of chanting Hare Krsna, and those who are under His lotus feet are glorious.
upa-puraneha suni sri-krsna-vacana
krpa kari vyasa prati kariyachena kathana
upa-puraneha--in the Upapuranas; suni--we hear; sri-krsna-vacana--the words of Lord Krsna; krpa kari--having mercy; vyasa prati--toward Vyasadeva; kariyachena--He did; kathana--speaking.
In the Upapuranas we hear Sri Krsna showing His mercy to Vyasadeva by speaking to him as follows.
aham--I; eva--certainly; kvacit--somewhere; brahman--O brahmana; sannyasa-asramam--the renounced order of life; asritah--taking recourse to; hari-bhaktim--devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; grahayami--I shall give; kalau--in the Age of Kali; papa-hatan--sinful; naran--to men.
"O learned brahmana, sometimes I accept the renounced order of life to induce the fallen people of the Age of Kali to accept devotional service to the Lord."
bhagavata--Srimad-Bhagavatam; bharata-sastra--Mahabharata; agama--works of Vedic literature; purana--the Puranas; caitanya--as Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; krsna--of Lord Krsna; avatare--in the incarnation; prakata--displayed; pramana--evidence.
Srimad-Bhagavatam, the Mahabharata, the Puranas and other works of Vedic literature all give evidence to prove that Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the incarnation of Krsna.
One can also directly see Lord Caitanya's manifest influence in His uncommon deeds and uncommon Krsna conscious realization.
dekhiya na dekhe yata abhaktera gana
uluke na dekhe yena suryera kirana
dekhiya--seeing; na dekhe--they do not see; yata--all; abhaktera--of nondevotees; gana--crowds; uluke--the owl; na dekhe--does not see; yena--just as; suryera--of the sun; kirana--rays.
But faithless unbelievers do not see what is clearly evident, just as owls do not see the rays of the sun.
tvam sila-rupa-caritaih parama-prakrstaih
sattvena sattvikataya prabalais ca sastraih
prakhyata-daiva-paramartha-vidam matais ca
naivasura-prakrtayah prabhavanti boddhum
tvam--You; sila--character; rupa--forms; caritaih--by acts; parama--most; prakrstaih--eminent; sattvena--by uncommon power; sattvikataya--with the quality of predominant goodness; prabalaih--great; ca--and; sastraih--by the scriptures; prakhyata--renowned; daiva--divine; parama-artha-vidam--of those who know the highest goal; mataih--by the opinions; ca--and; na--not; eva--certainly; asura-prakrtayah--those whose disposition is demoniac; prabhavanti--are able; boddhum--to know.
"O my Lord, those influenced by demoniac principles cannot realize You, although You are clearly the Supreme by dint of Your exalted activities, forms, character and uncommon power, which are confirmed by all the revealed scriptures in the quality of goodness and the celebrated transcendentalists in the divine nature."
This is a verse from the Stotra-ratna (12) of Yamunacarya, the spiritual master of Ramanujacarya. The authentic scriptures describe the transcendental activities, features, form and qualities of Krsna, and Krsna explains Himself in the Bhagavad-gita, the most authentic scripture in the world. He is further explained in Srimad-Bhagavatam, which is considered the explanation of the Vedanta-sutra. Lord Krsna is accepted as the Supreme Personality of Godhead by these authentic scriptures, not simply by vox populi. In the modern age a certain class of fools think that they can vote anyone into the position of God, as they can vote a man into the position of a political executive head. But the transcendental Supreme Personality of Godhead is perfectly described in the authentic scriptures. In the Bhagavad-gita the Lord says that only fools deride Him, thinking that anyone can speak like Krsna.
Even according to historical references, Krsna's activities are most uncommon. Krsna has affirmed, "I am God," and He has acted accordingly. Mayavadis think that everyone can claim to be God, but that is their illusion, for no one else can perform such extraordinary activities as Krsna. When He was a child on the lap of His mother, He killed the demon Putana. Then He killed the demons Trnavarta, Vatsasura and Baka. When He was a little more grown up, He killed the demons Aghasura and Rsabhasura. Therefore God is God from the very beginning. The idea that someone can become God by meditation is ridiculous. By hard endeavor one may realize his godly nature, but he will never become God. The asuras, or demons, who think that anyone can become God, are condemned.
The authentic scriptures are compiled by personalities like Vyasadeva, Narada, Asita and Parasara, who are not ordinary men. All the followers of the Vedic way of life have accepted these famous personalities, whose authentic scriptures conform to the Vedic literature. Nevertheless, the demoniac do not believe their statements, and they purposely oppose the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His devotees. Today it is fashionable for common men to write whimsical words as so-called incarnations of God and be accepted as authentic by other common men. This demoniac mentality is condemned in the Seventh Chapter of the Bhagavad-gita, wherein it is said that those who are miscreants and the lowest of mankind, who are fools and asses, cannot accept the Supreme Personality of Godhead because of their demoniac nature. They are compared to ulukas, or owls, who cannot open their eyes in the sunlight. Because they cannot bear sunlight, they hide themselves from it and never see it. They cannot believe that there is such illumination.
ullanghita--passed over; tri-vidha--three kinds; sima--the limitations; sama--of equal; atisayi--and of excelling; sambhavanam--by which the adequacy; tava--Your; parivradhima--of supremacy; svabhavam--the real nature; maya-balena--by the strength of the illusory energy; bhavata--Your; api--although; niguhyamanam--being hidden; pasyanti--they see; kecit--some; anisam--always; tvat--to You; ananya-bhavah--those who are exclusively devoted.
"O my Lord, everything within material nature is limited by time, space and thought. Your characteristics, however, being unequaled and unsurpassed, are always transcendental to such limitations. You sometimes cover such characteristics by Your own energy, but nevertheless Your unalloyed devotees are always able to see You under all circumstances."
This verse is also quoted from the Stotra-ratna (13) of Yamunacarya. Everything covered by the influence of maya is within the limited boundaries of space, time and thought. Even the greatest manifestation we can conceive, the sky, also has limitations. From the authentic scriptures, however, it is evident that beyond the sky is a covering of seven layers, each ten times thicker than the one preceding it. The covering layers are vast, but with or without coverings, space is limited. Our power to think about space and time is also limited. Time is eternal; we may imagine billions and trillions of years, but that will still be an inadequate estimate of the extent of time. Our imperfect senses, therefore, cannot think of the greatness of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, nor can we bring Him within the limitations of time or our thinking power. His position is accordingly described by the word ullanghita. He is transcendental to space, time and thought; although He appears within them, He exists transcendentally. Even when the Lord's transcendental existence is disguised by space, time and thought, however, pure devotees of the Supreme Lord can see Him in His personal features beyond space, time and thought. In other words, even though the Lord is not visible to the eyes of ordinary men, those who are beyond the covering layers because of their transcendental devotional service can still see Him.
The sun may appear covered by a cloud, but actually it is the eyes of the tiny people below the cloud that are covered, not the sun. If those tiny people rose above the cloud in an airplane, they could then see the sunshine and the sun without impediment. Similarly, although the covering of maya is very strong, Lord Krsna says in the Bhagavad-gita (7.14):
daivi hy esa guna-mayi
mama maya duratyaya
mam eva ye prapadyante
mayam etam taranti te
"This divine energy of Mine, consisting of the three modes of material nature, is difficult to overcome. But those who have surrendered unto Me can easily cross beyond it." To surpass the influence of the illusory energy is very difficult, but those who are determined to catch hold of the lotus feet of the Lord are freed from the clutches of maya. Therefore, pure devotees can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but demons, because of their miscreant behavior, cannot understand the Lord, in spite of seeing the many revealed scriptures and the uncommon activities of the Lord.
asura-svabhave krsne kabhu nahi jane
lukaite nare krsna bhakta-jana-sthane
asura-svabhave--those whose nature is demoniac; krsne--Lord Krsna; kabhu--at any time; nahi--not; jane--know; lukaite--to hide; nare--is not able; krsna--Lord Krsna; bhakta-jana--of pure devotees; sthane--in a place.
Those whose nature is demoniac cannot know Krsna at any time, but He cannot hide Himself from His pure devotees.
People who develop the nature of asuras like Ravana and Hiranyakasipu can never know Krsna, the Personality of Godhead, by challenging the authority of Godhead. But Sri Krsna cannot hide Himself from His pure devotees.
dvau bhuta-sargau loke 'smin
daiva asura eva ca
visnu-bhaktah smrto daiva
dvau--two; bhuta--of the living beings; sargau--dispositions; loke--in the world; asmin--in this; daivah--godly; asurah--demoniac; eva--certainly; ca--and; visnu-bhaktah--a devotee of Lord Visnu; smrtah--remembered; daivah--godly; asurah--demoniac; tat-viparyayah--the opposite of that.
"There are two classes of men in the created world. One consists of the demoniac and the other of the godly. The devotees of Lord Visnu are the godly, whereas those who are just the opposite are called demons."
This is a verse from the Padma Purana. Visnu-bhaktas, or devotees in Krsna consciousness, are known as devas (demigods). Atheists, who do not believe in God or who declare themselves God, are asuras (demons). Asuras always engage in atheistic material activities, exploring ways to utilize the resources of matter to enjoy sense gratification. The visnu-bhaktas, Krsna conscious devotees, are also active, but their objective is to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead by devotional service. Superficially both classes may appear to work in the same way, but their purposes are completely opposite because of a difference in consciousness. Asuras work for personal sense gratification, whereas devotees work for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord. Both work conscientiously, but their motives are different.
The Krsna consciousness movement is meant for devas, or devotees. Demons cannot take part in Krsna conscious activities, nor can devotees in Krsna consciousness take part in demoniac activities or work like cats and dogs simply for sense gratification. Such activity does not appeal to those in Krsna consciousness. Devotees accept only the bare necessities of life to keep themselves fit to act in Krsna consciousness. The balance of their energy is used for developing Krsna consciousness, through which one can be transferred to the abode of Krsna by always thinking of Him, even at the point of death.
acarya gosani--Advaita Acarya Gosani; prabhura--of the Lord; bhakta-avatara--incarnation of a devotee; krsna--of Lord Krsna; avatara--of the incarnation; hetu--the cause; yanhara--whose; hunkara--loud calls.
Advaita Acarya Gosvami is an incarnation of the Lord as a devotee. His loud calling was the cause for Krsna's incarnation.
krsna yadi prthivite karena avatara
prathame karena guru-vargera sancara
krsna--Lord Krsna; yadi--if; prthivite--on the earth; karena--makes; avatara--incarnation; prathame--first; karena--makes; guru-vargera--of the group of respectable predecessors; sancara--the advent.
Whenever Sri Krsna desires to manifest His incarnation on earth, first He creates the incarnations of His respectable predecessors.
pita mata guru adi yata manya-gana
prathame karena sabara prthivite janama
pita--father; mata--mother; guru--spiritual master; adi--headed by; yata--all; manya-gana--respectable members; prathame--first; karena--He makes; sabara--of all of them; prthivite--on earth; janama--the births.
Thus respectable personalities such as His father, mother and spiritual master all take birth on earth first.
madhava-isvara-puri, saci, jagannatha
advaita acarya prakata haila sei satha
Madhavendra Puri, Isvara Puri, Srimati Sacimata and Srila Jagannatha Misra all appeared with Sri Advaita Acarya.
Whenever the Supreme Personality of Godhead descends in His human form, He sends ahead all His devotees, who act as His father, teacher and associates in many roles. Such personalities appear before the descent of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Before the appearance of Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu, there appeared His devotees like Sri Madhavendra Puri; His spiritual master, Sri Isvara Puri; His mother, Srimati Sacidevi; His father, Sri Jagannatha Misra; and Sri Advaita Acarya.
prakatiya dekhe acarya sakala samsara
krsna-bhakti gandha-hina visaya-vyavahara
prakatiya--manifesting; dekhe--He saw; acarya--Advaita Acarya; sakala--all; samsara--material existence; krsna-bhakti--of devotion to Lord Krsna; gandha-hina--without a trace; visaya--of the sense objects; vyavahara--affairs.
Advaita Acarya having appeared, He found the world devoid of devotional service to Sri Krsna because people were engrossed in material affairs.
keha pape, keha punye kare visaya-bhoga
bhakti-gandha nahi, yate yaya bhava-roga
keha--someone; pape--in sinful activities; keha--someone; punye--in pious activities; kare--do; visaya--of the sense objects; bhoga--enjoyment; bhakti-gandha--a trace of devotional service; nahi--there is not; yate--by which; yaya--goes away; bhava-roga--the disease of material existence.
Everyone was engaged in material enjoyment, whether sinfully or virtuously. No one was interested in the transcendental service of the Lord, which can give total relief from the repetition of birth and death.
Advaita Acarya saw the entire world to be engaged in activities of material piety and impiety, without a trace of devotional service or Krsna consciousness anywhere. The fact is that in this material world there is no scarcity of anything except Krsna consciousness. Material necessities are supplied by the mercy of the Supreme Lord. We sometimes feel scarcity because of our mismanagement, but the real problem is that people are out of touch with Krsna consciousness. Everyone is engaged in material sense gratification, but people have no plan for making an ultimate solution to their real problems, namely, birth, disease, old age and death. These four material miseries are called bhava-roga, or material diseases. They can be cured only by Krsna consciousness. Therefore Krsna consciousness is the greatest benediction for human society.
loka-gati dekhi' acarya karuna-hrdaya
vicara karena, lokera kaiche hita haya
loka-gati--the course of the world; dekhi'--seeing; acarya--Advaita Acarya; karuna-hrdaya--compassionate heart; vicara karena--considers; lokera--of the world; kaiche--how; hita--welfare; haya--there is.
Seeing the activities of the world, the Acarya felt compassion and began to ponder how He could act for the people's benefit.
This sort of serious interest in the welfare of the public makes one a bona fide acarya. An acarya does not exploit his followers. Since the acarya is a confidential servitor of the Lord, his heart is always full of compassion for humanity in its suffering. He knows that all suffering is due to the absence of devotional service to the Lord, and therefore he always tries to find ways to change people's activities, making them favorable for the attainment of devotion. That is the qualification of an acarya. Although Sri Advaita Prabhu Himself was powerful enough to do the work, as a submissive servitor He thought that without the personal appearance of the Lord, no one could improve the fallen condition of society.
In the grim clutches of maya, the first-class prisoners of this material world wrongly think themselves happy because they are rich, powerful, resourceful and so on. These foolish creatures do not know that they are nothing but play dolls in the hands of material nature and that at any moment material nature's pitiless intrigues can crush to dust all their plans for godless activities. Such foolish prisoners cannot see that however they improve their position by artificial means, the calamities of repeated birth, death, disease and old age are always beyond the jurisdiction of their control. Foolish as they are, they neglect these major problems of life and busy themselves with false things that cannot help them solve their real problems. They know that they do not want to suffer death or the pangs of disease and old age, but under the influence of the illusory energy, they are grossly negligent and therefore do nothing to solve the problems. This is called maya. People held in the grip of maya are thrown into oblivion after death, and as a result of their karma, in the next life they become dogs or gods, although most of them become dogs. To become gods in the next life, they must engage in the devotional service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; otherwise, they are sure to become dogs or hogs in terms of the laws of nature.
The third-class prisoners, being less materially opulent than the first-class prisoners, endeavor to imitate them, for they also have no information of the real nature of their imprisonment. Thus they also are misled by the illusory material nature. The function of the acarya, however, is to change the activities of both the first-class and third-class prisoners for their real benefit. This endeavor makes him a very dear devotee of the Lord, who says clearly in the Bhagavad-gita that no one in human society is dearer to Him than a devotee who constantly engages in His service by finding ways to preach the message of Godhead for the real benefit of the world. The so-called acaryas of the Age of Kali are more concerned with exploiting the resources of their followers than mitigating their miseries; but Sri Advaita Prabhu, as an ideal acarya, was concerned with improving the condition of the world situation.
apani sri-krsna yadi karena avatara
apane acari' bhakti karena pracara
[Advaita Acarya thought:] "If Sri Krsna were to appear as an incarnation, He Himself could preach devotion by His personal example."
nama vinu kali-kale dharma nahi ara
kali-kale kaiche habe krsna avatara
nama vinu--except for the holy name; kali-kale--in the Age of Kali; dharma--religion; nahi--there is not; ara--another; kali-kale--in the Age of Kali; kaiche--how; habe--there will be; krsna--Lord Krsna; avatara--incarnation.
"In this Age of Kali there is no religion other than the chanting of the holy name of the Lord, but how in this age will the Lord appear as an incarnation?"
suddha-bhave--in a purified state of mind; kariba--I shall do; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; aradhana--worship; nirantara--constantly; sa-dainye--in humility; kariba--I shall make; nivedana--request.
"I shall worship Krsna in a purified state of mind. I shall constantly petition Him in humbleness."
aniya krsnere karon kirtana sancara
tabe se 'advaita' nama saphala amara
aniya--bringing; krsnere--Lord Krsna; karon--I make; kirtana--chanting of the holy name; sancara--advent; tabe--then; se--this; advaita--nondual; nama--name; sa-phala--fulfilled; amara--My.
"My name, 'Advaita,' will be fitting if I am able to induce Krsna to inaugurate the movement of the chanting of the holy name."
The nondualist Mayavadi philosopher who falsely believes that he is nondifferent from the Lord is unable to call Him like Advaita Prabhu. Advaita Prabhu is nondifferent from the Lord, yet in His relationship with the Lord He does not merge in Him but eternally renders service unto Him as a plenary portion. This is inconceivable for Mayavadis because they think in terms of mundane sense perception and therefore think that nondualism necessitates losing one's separate identity. It is clear from this verse, however, that Advaita Prabhu, although retaining His separate identity, is nondifferent from the Lord.
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu preached the philosophy of inconceivable, simultaneous oneness with the Lord and difference from Him. Conceivable dualism and monism are conceptions of the imperfect senses, which are unable to reach the Transcendence because the Transcendence is beyond the conception of limited potency. The actions of Sri Advaita Prabhu, however, give tangible proof of inconceivable nondualism. One who therefore surrenders unto Sri Advaita Prabhu can easily follow the philosophy of inconceivable, simultaneous dualism and monism.
krsna vasa karibena kon aradhane
vicarite eka sloka aila tanra mane
krsna--Lord Krsna; vasa karibena--shall propitiate; kon aradhane--by what worship; vicarite--while considering; eka--one; sloka--verse; aila--came; tanra--of Him; mane--in the mind.
While He was thinking about how to propitiate Krsna by worship, the following verse came to His mind.
jalasya culukena va
vikrinite svam atmanam
tulasi--of tulasi; dala--a leaf; matrena--by only; jalasya--of water; culukena--by a palmful; va--and; vikrinite--sells; svam--His own; atmanam--self; bhaktebhyah--unto the devotees; bhakta-vatsalah--Lord Krsna, who is affectionate to His devotees.
"Sri Krsna, who is very affectionate toward His devotees, sells Himself to a devotee who offers Him merely a tulasi leaf and a palmful of water."
This is a verse from the Gautamiya-tantra.
ei slokartha acarya karena vicarana
krsnake tulasi-jala deya yei jana
tara rna sodhite krsna karena cintana----
'jala-tulasira sama kichu ghare nahi dhana'
ei--this; sloka--of the verse; artha--the meaning; acarya--Advaita Acarya; karena--does; vicarana--considering; krsnake--to Lord Krsna; tulasi-jala--tulasi and water; deya--gives; yei jana--that person who; tara--to Him; rna--the debt; sodhite--to pay; krsna--Lord Krsna; karena--does; cintana--thinking; jala-tulasira sama--equal to water and tulasi; kichu--any; ghare--in the house; nahi--there is not; dhana--wealth.
Advaita Acarya considered the meaning of the verse in this way: Not finding any way to repay the debt He owes to one who offers Him a tulasi leaf and water, Lord Krsna thinks, "There is no wealth in My possession that is equal to a tulasi leaf and water."
tabe atma veci' kare rnera sodhana
eta bhavi' acarya karena aradhana
Thus the Lord liquidates the debt by offering Himself to the devotee. Considering this, the Acarya began worshiping the Lord.
Through devotional service one can easily please Lord Krsna with a leaf of the tulasi plant and a little water. As the Lord says in the Bhagavad-gita (9.26), a leaf, a flower, a fruit or some water (patram puspam phalam toyam), when offered with devotion, very much pleases Him. He universally accepts the services of His devotees. Even the poorest of devotees in any part of the world can secure a small flower, fruit or leaf and a little water, and if these offerings, and especially tulasi leaves and Ganges water, are offered to Krsna with devotion, He is very satisfied. It is said that Krsna is so pleased by such devotional service that He offers Himself to His devotee in exchange for it. Srila Advaita Acarya knew this fact, and therefore He decided to call for the Personality of Godhead Krsna to descend by worshiping the Lord with tulasi leaves and the water of the Ganges.
ganga-jala, tulasi-manjari anuksana
krsna-pada-padma bhavi' kare samarpana
ganga-jala--the water of the Ganges; tulasi-manjari--buds of the tulasi plant; anuksana--constantly; krsna--of Lord Krsna; pada-padma--lotus feet; bhavi'--thinking of; kare--does; samarpana--offering.
Thinking of the lotus feet of Sri Krsna, He constantly offered tulasi buds in water from the Ganges.
krsnera ahvana kare kariya hunkara
e-mate krsnere karaila avatara
krsnera--of Lord Krsna; ahvana--invitation; kare--makes; kariya--making; hunkara--loud shouts; e-mate--in this way; krsnere--Lord Krsna; karaila--caused to make; avatara--incarnation.
He appealed to Sri Krsna with loud calls and thus made it possible for Krsna to appear.
caitanyera avatare ei mukhya hetu
bhaktera icchaya avatare dharma-setu
caitanyera--of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; avatare--in the incarnation; ei--this; mukhya--principal; hetu--cause; bhaktera--of the devotee; icchaya--by the desire; avatare--He descends; dharma-setu--protector of religion.
Therefore the principal reason for Sri Caitanya's descent is this appeal by Advaita Acarya. The Lord, the protector of religion, appears by the desire of His devotee.
asse sruteksita-patho nanu natha pumsam
yad yad dhiya ta urugaya vibhavayanti
tat tad vapuh pranayase sad-anugrahaya
tvam--You; bhakti-yoga--by devotional service; paribhavita--saturated; hrt--of the heart; saroje--on the lotus; asse--dwell; sruta--heard; iksita--seen; pathah--whose path; nanu--certainly; natha--O Lord; pumsam--by the devotees; yat yat--whatever; dhiya--by the mind; te--they; uru-gaya--O Lord, who are glorified in excellent ways; vibhavayanti--contemplate upon; tat tat--that; vapuh--form; pranayase--You manifest; sat--to Your devotees; anugrahaya--to show favor.
"O my Lord, You always dwell in the vision and hearing of Your pure devotees. You also live in their lotuslike hearts, which are purified by devotional service. O my Lord, who are glorified by exalted prayers, You show special favor to Your devotees by manifesting Yourself in the eternal forms in which they welcome You."
This text from Srimad-Bhagavatam (3.9.11) is a prayer by Lord Brahma to the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krsna for His blessings in the work of creation. Knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead can be understood from the descriptions of the Vedic scriptures. For example, the Brahma-samhita (5.29) describes that in the abode of Lord Krsna, which is made of cintamani (touchstone), the Lord, acting as a cowherd boy, is served by hundreds and thousands of goddesses of fortune. Mayavadis think that the devotees have imagined the form of Krsna, but the authentic Vedic scriptures have actually described Krsna and His various transcendental forms.
The word sruta in sruteksita-pathah refers to the Vedas, and iksita indicates that the way to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead is by proper study of the Vedic scriptures. One cannot imagine something about God or His form. Such imagination is not accepted by those who are serious about enlightenment. Here Brahma says that one can know Krsna through the path of properly understanding the Vedic texts. If by studying the form, name, qualities, pastimes and paraphernalia of the Supreme Godhead one is attracted to the Lord, he can execute devotional service, and the form of the Lord will be impressed in his heart and remain transcendentally situated there. Unless a devotee actually develops transcendental love for the Lord, it is not possible for him to think always of the Lord within his heart. Such constant thought of the Lord is the sublime perfection of the yogic process, as the Bhagavad-gita confirms in the Sixth Chapter (47), stating that anyone absorbed in such thought is the best of all yogis. Such transcendental absorption is known as samadhi. A pure devotee who is always thinking of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the person qualified to see the Lord.
One cannot speak of Urugaya (the Lord, who is glorified by sublime prayers) unless one is transcendentally elevated. The Lord has innumerable forms, as the Brahma-samhita confirms (advaitam acyutam anadim ananta-rupam). The Lord expands Himself in innumerable svamsa forms. When a devotee, hearing about these innumerable forms, becomes attached to one and always thinks of Him, the Lord appears to him in that form. Lord Krsna is especially pleasing to devotees in whose heart He is always present because of their highly elevated transcendental love.
ei slokera artha kahi sanksepera sara
bhaktera icchaya krsnera sarva avatara
ei--this; slokera--of the verse; artha--the meaning; kahi--I relate; sanksepera--of conciseness; sara--the pith; bhaktera--of the devotee; icchaya--by the desire; krsnera--of Lord Krsna; sarva--all; avatara--incarnations.
The essence of the meaning of this verse is that Lord Krsna appears in all His innumerable eternal forms because of the desires of His pure devotees.
caturtha slokera artha haila suniscite
avatirna haila gaura prema prakasite
caturtha--fourth; slokera--of the verse; artha--the meaning; haila--was; su-niscite--very surely; avatirna haila--incarnated; gaura--Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu; prema--love of God; prakasite--to manifest.
Thus I have surely determined the meaning of the fourth verse. Lord Gauranga [Lord Caitanya] appeared as an incarnation to preach unalloyed love of God.
sri-rupa-raghunatha-pade yara asa
caitanya-caritamrta kahe krsnadasa
sri-rupa--Srila Rupa Gosvami; raghunatha--Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami; pade--at the lotus feet of; yara--whose; asa--expectation; caitanya-caritamrta--the book named Caitanya-caritamrta; kahe--describes; krsna-dasa--Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami.
Praying at the lotus feet of Sri Rupa and Sri Raghunatha, always desiring their mercy, I, Krsnadasa, narrate Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, following in their footsteps.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila, Third Chapter, describing the causes for the descent of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.