I offer my respectful obeisances to the lotus feet of my spiritual master. I offer my respectful obeisances to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who appeared in this world with Nityananda Prabhu and is surrounded by His devotees.
I offer my respectful obeisances to the two lotus feet Srimati Radharani. I offer my respectful obeisances Lord Nandanandana, who is surrounded by the gopis and enchants the minds of the residents of Vrndavana.
The celebrated personal associates of the King and Queen of Vrndavana are briefly but truthfully described with great delight in both Vedic literatures and oral tradition. This book will also describe them.
4 AND 5
These associates of the Lord are described by the residents of Mathura-mandala, by the various books written by devotees , various Vedic literatures such as the Puranas and Agamas and by the great devotees and saintly persons. For the satisfaction of my dear friends, these associates of the Lord will now be briefly describing in writing, following the previous authorities in the path of ecstatic love of God.
The associates of Krsna who reside in Vrajabhumi may be divided into three groups : 1. protectors of domestic animals, 2. brahmanas, 3. others.
The Protectors of Domestic Animals
These are descendants of the Yadu dynasty and they may be divided into three groups : 1. vaisyas, 2. abhiras, 3. gurjaras.
For the most part the most important vaisyas earn their livelihood by protecting cows. Some of the vaisyas are born from lower-caste mothers and they are known as abhiras.
The abhiras are those who have vaisya fathers and sudra mothers. A little inferior to the vaisyas, who are engaged in cow protection, the abhiras earn their livelihood by protecting buffalo. They are known by various names, such as ghosa.
A little inferior to the abhiras, the garjaras earn their livelihood by protecting goats and similar animals. Their bodily features are a little chubby and they reside on the outskirts of Vraja.
Learned in all the Vedas, the brahmanas engage in performing sacrifices, worshiping the Deity and other brahminical occupations.
The bahisthas earn their livelihood by engaging in various trades and crafts. In this way we have described five kinds of associates (vaisyas, abhiras, garjaras, brahmanas and bahisthas) of Lord Hari in Vrajabhumi.
Lord Krsna's associates may also be divided into the following eight groups : 1. worshipable superiors, 2. relatives who are on the same level (such as brothers and sisters) 3. gopi messengers, 4. servants, 5. craftsmen, 6. maidservants, 7. contemporary cowherd friends and 8. dear gopi friends. Included among the worshipable superiors are the brothers and similar relatives of Nanda Maharaja, Nanda's contemporary friends, servants, other associates and the elderly gopis. Krsna is always respectful to these superiors.
1. Worshipable Superiors
The worshipable superiors include Krnsa's grandfather, other elderly relatives and also the community of brahmanas.
15 AND 16
Krsna's fair-complexion, white-haired and white-attired grandfather is named Parjanya Maharaja, because he is like a great cloud (parjanya) showering the nectar of auspiciousness. He is the best of all the residents of Vraja. Desiring a worthy descendant, he followed the advice of Devarsi Narada and engaged in the worship of Lord Narayana, the husband of Laksmi. As he was worshiping Narayana at Nandisvara-pura, a pleasant voice spoke the following words from the sky.
17 AND 18
"Because of your pious austerities you will obtain five sons. Of these sons the middle one, named Nanda, will be the best. Nanda's glorious son will delight the residents of Vraja. He will defeat all oppositions. Both the demigods and demons will worship Him, touching the jewels of their crowns to His lotus feet."
Hearing this, Parjanya Maharaja became happy and decided to reside at the place. He lived there until he saw the Kesi demon arrive and at that time he became frightened and fled with all his associates to Mahavana.
Krsna's grandmother Variyasi is respected in the land of Vraja. She is short in stature and her complexion is the colour of a kusumbha flower. She is attired in green garments and her hair is the color of milk.
Parjanya Maharaja's brothers are named Urjanya and Rajanya and his sister is an expert dancer named Suverjana. Her husband is named Gunavira and they live in the town named Surya-kunja.
22 and 23
Krsna's father is Nanda Maharaja. Nanda delights the residents of Vraja and he is worshiped by all the worlds. He has a protuberant belly, his complexion is the colour of sandalwood, he is tall in stature and his garments are the colour of a bandhujiva flower. His beard is a mixture of black and white hairs, like rice and toasted sesame seeds mixed together.
Nanda is the king of the cowherd men, the younger brother of Upananda and the intimate friend of Maharaja Vasudeva. Nanda and his wife Yasoda are the king and queen of Vrajabhumi and the parents of Lord Krsna.
Because he possesses the splendor (deva) of great wealth (vasu), Nanda Maharaja is also known as Vasudeva. He is also famous by the name Anakadundubhi and it is known that in his previous birth he was named Drona.
These names of Maharaja Nanda are described in the Mathura-mahima section of the Garuda Purana. Nanda's most intimate friend is named Maharaja Vrsabhanu.
Krnsa's mother is named Yasoda because she bestows (da) fame (yasah) on the cowherd residents of Vraja. She is like the personification of parental love for Krnsa. Her complexion is dark and her garments are like a rainbow.
Mother Yasoda's body is of a medium size, neither large nor small. She has long black hair. Her closest friends are Aindavi and Kirtida.
Yasoda is the wife of Nanda, the king of Gokula. She is the queen of the cowherd men in Vraja, the friend of Devaki and the mother of Lord Krsna.
The friendship of Yasoda is described in the following statement of the Adi Purana : " The wife of Maharaja Nanda was known by two names, Yasoda and Devaki. Partly because they share the same name (Devaki) the wife of Maharaja Nanda and the wife of Maharaja Vasudeva were great friends."
Lord Balarama's mother is named Rohini, because she is filled with a constantly rising (arohini) flood of transcendental bliss. Although she dearly loves her son Balarama, she loves Krsna millions of times more.
Nanda Maharaja's elder brothers are Upananda and Abhinanda and his younger brothers are Sannanda and Nandana. These are the names of Lord Krsna's parental uncles.
Upananda's complexion is pink. He has a long beard and wears green garments. Tungi-devi is his dear wife. Both her complexion and garments are the colour of a cataka bird.
Abhinanda wears dark garments and his long beautiful beard is like a great conchshell. Pivari-devi is his wife. She wears blue garments and her complexion is pink.
Sannanda is also known as Sunanda. His complexion is white and he wears dark-colored clothing. He has two or three white hairs and he is very dear to Lord Kesava.
Kuvalaya-devi is Sannanda's wife. Her complexion is the colour of a blue lotus flower and she wears red garments. Nandana wears garments the color of a candata flower and his complexion is like the color of a peacock.
Nandana lives in the same house with his father, Parjanya Maharaja. He is full of love for his yound nephew Krsna. Atulya-devi is Nandana's wife. Her complexion is like lightning and her garments resemble a dark cloud.
Krsna's father has two sisters, Sananda-devi and Nandini-devi. They both dress in garments of many different colors. They have beautiful teeth and their complexions are the color of white foam. Sananda-devi's husband is Mahanila and Nandini's husband is Sunila.
39 and 40
Kandava and Dandava are the two sons of Upananda. Their faces are as beautiful as lotus flowers and they become especially happy in the association of their friend Subala. Catu and Batuka are Nanda Maharaja's two ksatriya cousins born in Vasudeva Maharaja's dynasty. Catu's wife is Dadhisara and Batuka's wife is Havihsara.
Krsna's energetic and enthusiastic maternal grandfather is named Sumukha. His long beard is like a great conchshell and his complexion is the color of a ripe jambu fruit.
Queen Patala-devi is Krsna's maternal grandmother and she is very famous in Vrajabhumi. Her hair is the white color of yogurt, her complexion is the pink color of a patala flower and her garments are green.
Patala-devi's dear friend is named Mukhara-gopi. Out of intense affection for her friend, Mukhara used to feed the infant Yasoda with her own breast milk.
44 AND 45
Carumukha is Sumukha's younger brother. His complexion is the color of black eye-cosmetics and his wife Balaka-gopi was raised by her stepparents. Gola is the brother of Patala-devi, Krsna's maternal grandmother. His garments are the color of smoke. His brother-in-law, Sumukha, used to make fun of him and laugh and because of this Gola was very angry with him. Because he had worshiped Durvasa Muni in his previous birth, Gola was allowed to take birth in Vrajabhumi in the family of Ujjvala.
Jatila-devi is Gola's wife. She has a large belly and her complexion is the color of a cow. Her sons Yasodhara, Yasodeva and Sudeva head the group of Krsna's maternal uncles.
Krsna's maternal uncles have complexions like the color of a dark atasi flower and they dress in white garments. Their wives have complexions like karkati flowers and they dress in smoke-colored garments.
Rema-devi, Roma-devi and Surema-devi are the daughters of Krsna's parental uncle Pavana. Yasodevi and Yasasvini are the sisters of Krsna's mother Yasoda. Yasasvini's husband is named Malla.
Yasodevi is elder. Her complexion is dark and she is also known by the name Dadhisara. Yasasvini is younger. Her complexion is fair and she is also known by the name Havihsara. Both dress in vermillion-colored garments.
Yasoda's sisters married the two ksatriyas Catu and Batuka (see text 40). Yasoda's uncle Carumukha has one son who is named Sucaru.
Sucaru's wife is Tulavati-devi, the daughter of Sumukha's brother-in-law Gola. Tundu, Kutera, Purata and others are the comtemporary associates of Krsna's parental grandfather.
Kila, Antakela, Tilata, Krpita, Purata, Gonda, Kallota, Karanda, Tarisana, Varisana, Viraroha and Vararoha are among the contemporary associates of Krsna's maternal grandfather.
The elderly ladies Silabheri, Sikhambara, Bharuni, Bhangur, Bhangi, Bharasakha and Sikha are among the contemporary associates of Krsna's parental grandmother.
54 AND 55
Bharunda, Jatila, Bhela, Karala, Karabalika, Gharghara, Mukhara, Ghora, Ghanta, Ghoni, Sughantika, Dhvankarunti, Handi, Tundi, Dingima, Manjuranika, Cakkini, Condika, Cundi, Dindima, Pundavanika, Damani, Damari, Dambi and Danka are among the contemporary associates of Krsna's maternal grandmother.
56 - 58
Mangala, Pingala, Pinga, Mathura, Pitha, Pattisa, Sankara, Sangara, Bhrngaq, Ghrni, Ghatika, Saragha, Pathira, Dandi, Kedara, Saurabheya, Kala, Ankura, Dhurina, Dhurva, Cakranga, Maskara, Utpala, Kambala, Supaksa, Saudha, Harita, Harikesa, Hara and Upananda are among the contemporary associates of Krsna's father, Nanda Maharaja.
Having taken a vow of friendship in their youth, Parjanya and Sumukha always remain the best of friends. Nanda Maharaja and many other of the cowherds are descended from their families.
60 - 62
Vatsala, Kusala, Tali, Medura, Masrna, Krpa, Sankini, Bimbini, Mitra, Subhaga, Bhogini, Prabha, Sarika Hingula, Niti, Kapila, Dhamanidhara, Paksati, Pataka, Pundi, Sutunda, Tusti, Anjana, Tarangaksi, Taralika, Subhada, Malika, Angada, Visala, Sallaki, Vena and Vartika are among the contemporary associates of Krsna's mother, Yasoda-devi.
Ambika and Kilimba are the two nurses who fed Krsna with their breast milk. Of the two, Ambika, the dear friend of Vraja's queen, is the most important.
Two groups of brahmanas reside in Gokula : those maintained by Nanda Maharaja and those who are priests engaged in the performance of Vedic sacrifices. Among the priests, Vedagarbha, Mahayajva and Bhaguri are prominent. Their respective wives are Samadheni, Mahakavya and Vedika.
Sulabha, Gautami, Gargi, Candila, Kubjika, Vamani, Svaha, Sulata, Sandili, Svadha and Bhargavi are the most important of the brahmana ladies respectfully worshiped by the residents of Vraja.
67 - 69
Full of transcendental opulences, Paurnamasi-devi is the incarnation of the Lord's Yogamaya potency. She makes the arrangements of Lord Krsna's pastimes to be properly performed. She is slightly tall in stature and has a fair complexion. Her hair is the color of kasa flowers and she wears red garments. She is greatly respected by Nanda Maharaja and all the other residents of Vrajabhumi. She was the dear student of Devarsi Narada and on his advice she left her favorite son, Sandipani Muni, in Avantipura and came to Gokula, impelled by great love for her worshipable Lord Krsna.
Krsna's associates may be divided into two groups : gopis and gopas. The gopis may be divided into three groups : 1. Gopi friends of the same age as Krsna, 2. maidservants and 3. gopi messengers.
71 - 72
Learned scholars have also divided Lord Krsna's associates into the following nine categories: 1. yutha, 2. kula, 3. mandala, 4. varga, 5. gana, 6. samavaya, 7. sancaya, 8. samaja, 9. and samanvaya.
73 - 75
Krsna's Gopi Friends :
Of the three kinds of gopi associates of the Lord of the three kinds of gopi associates of the Lord mentioned in text 70, the first group, Krsna's contemporary gopi friends, are the most exalted, the second group, the maidservants are the next most exalted, and the gopi messengers come after them. These three groups correspond to the groups mentioned as samaja, mandala and gana respectively (in texts 71 - 72). The first group, Krsna's contemporary gopi friends, may be further divided into varistha (the most exalted ) and vara (exalted).
Varistha (The Most Exalted Gopis)
The varistha gopis are more famous than all the others. They are eternally the intimate friends of Sri Sri Radha-Krsna. No one can equal or exceed the love they bear for the divine couple.
Of all Krsna's friends, the varistha gopis are the most worshipable. They are decorated with incomparable transcendental qualities, bodily beauty and all other charming opulences.
Krsna's Gopi Friends
Lalita, Visakha, Citra, Campakamallika, Tungavidya, Indulekha, Rangadevi and Sudevi are the most intimate of Lord Krsna's gopi friends.
Of these eight gopis, the first one, Lalita-devi, is the best. She is a dear friend of the divine couple and she is 27 years old, the eldest of Krsna's gopi friends.
Lalita is famous as Srimati Radharani's constant companion and follower. Lalita is contrary and hot-tempered by nature. Her complexion is like the yellow pigment gorocana and her garments are like peacock feathers.
Her mother is Saradi-devi and her father is Visoka. Her husband is named Bhairava. He is a close friend of Govardhana-gopa.
82 - 83
Visakha is the second most important of these eight varistha-gopis. Her attributes, activities and resolve are all muck like those of her friend Lalita. Visakha was born at the exact same moment as her dear friend Srimati Radharani appeared in this world. Visakha's garments are decorated with stars and her complexion is like lightning. Her father is Pavana, the son of the sister of Mukhara-gopi and her mother is Daksina-devi, the daughter of the sister of Jatila. Her husband is Vahika-gopa.
Campakalata is the third of the varistha-gopis. Her complexion is the color of a blossoming yellow campaka flower and her garments are the color of a blue-jay's feature. She is one day younger than Srimati Radharani.
Her husband is Arama, her mother is Vatika-devi and her husband is Candaksa. Her qualities are much like those of Visakha.
Citra is the fourth of the varistha gopis. Her fair complexion resembles the color of kunkuma and her garments are the color of crystal. She is 26 days younger than Srimati Radharani. When Lord Madhava is full of blis, she becomes satisfied.
Her father is Catura, the paternal uncle of Suryamitra. Her mother is Carcika-devi. Her husband is Pithara.
Tungavidya is the fifth of the varistha gopis. Her complexion is the color of kunkuma and the fragrance of her body is like sandalwood mixed with camphor. She is fifteen days younger than Srimati Radharani
Tungavidya is hot-tempered and expert at dissimulation. She wears white garments. Her parents are Puskara and Medha-devi and her husband is Balisa.
Indulekha is the sixth of the varistha gopis. She has a tan complexion and wears garments the color of a pomegranate flower. She is three days younger than Srimati Radharani.
Her parents are Sagara and Vela-devi and her husband is Durbala. She is contrary and hot-tempered by nature.
Rangadevi is the seventh of the varistha gopis. Her complexion is the color of a lotus filament and her garments are the color of a red rose. She is seven days younger than Srimati Radharani.
Her personal qualities are much like those of Campakalata. Her parents are Karuna-devi and Rangasara.
Sudevi is the eighth of the varistha gopis. She is sweet and charming by nature. She is the sister of Rangadevi. Her husband is Vakreksana, the younger brother of Bhairava.
Her marriage with Vakreksana was arranged by his younger brother. Her form and other qualities are so similar to those of her sister Rangadevi that they are often mistaken for one another.
96 - 97
Just as there are eight varistha (most exalted) gopis, the same way there are also eight vara (exalted) gopis. The vara-gopis are all teenage girls. Their names are Kalavati, Subhangada, Hiranyangi, Ratnalekha, Sikhavati, Kandarpa manjari, Phullakalika and Ananga manjari
Kalavati's parents are Sindhumati-devi and Kalankura-gopa, the maternal uncle of Arkamitra.
Her complexion is the color of yellow sandalwood and she wears garments the color of a parrot. Her husband is Kapota, the youngest brother of Vahika.
Subhangada is the younger sister of Visakha. She is a very fair complexion and is married to Patatri, the younger brother of Pithara.
Hiranyangi's complexion is the color of gold and she appears to be a temple or palace in which all beauty is conserved. She was born from the womb of Harini-devi.
Mahavasu-gopa is pious, famous and devoted to performing Vedic sacrifices. He is decorated with wonderful good qualities and he is the close friend of Arkamitra.
Mahavasu-gopa desired to beget a powerful and heroic son and a beautiful daughter. To attain this end the self-controlled Mahavasu engaged Bhaguri Muni in performing a Vedic sacrifice.
Certain nectarean foodstuffs appeared from that sacrifice and the delighted Mahavasu gave them to his wife, Sucandra-devi.
105 - 106
As Sucandra-devi was hastily eating the sacred foodstuff on her front porch, she spilled some of it. At that time the doe named Suranga, who was the mother of the doe named Rangini, was wandering in Vrajabhumi. Seeing Sucandra-devi spill some of the foodstuff, the doe Suranga quickly came forward and ate some of it. As a result of eating this sacred foodstuff, both the gopi Sucandra and the doe Suranga became pregnant.
Sucandra-devi gave birth to a son whom the gopas called Stokakrsna and the deer gave birth to the girl Hiranyangi in the village of Vraja.
Hiranyangi is very dear to Srimati Radharani and Srimati Radharani is very dear to her. Hiranyangi is dressed in beautiful garments that appear like a great multitude of unparalleled blossoming flowers.
With great respect the father Mahavasu then promised the exalted Hiranyangi in marriage to an elderly gopa who was completely unfit to become her husband.
110 - 111
Maharaj Vrsabhanu's maternal cousin Payonidhi had a son but no daughter. His wife Mitra-devi desired to have a daughter also and to achieve this end she faithfully worshiped the sun-god, Vivasvan. By Vivasvan's mercy she gave birth to a daughter who was named Ratnalekha.
Ratnalekha's complexion is the red color of the mineral manahsila and her garments appear like a beautiful swarm of bumblebees. She is very dear to Srimati Radharani, the daughter of Maharaja Vrsabhanu. Her mother engages both her and her friend Radharani in the devoted attentive worship of the sun-god. When Ratnalekha sees Lord Madhava, her eyes begin to roll in ferocious anger and she severly rebukes Him.
Sikhavati's father is Dhanyadhanya and her mother is Susikha-devi. Sikhavati's complexion is the color of a karnikara flower. She is the younger sister of Kundalatika.
She is like sweetness and charm personified. Her garments are the spotted color of an old francoline partridge. She is married to Garjara-gopa, who is also known as Garuda-gopa.
115 AND 116
Kandarpa-manjari's father is Puspakara and her mother is Kuruvinda-devi. Kandarpa-manjari's father did not give her marriage to anyone, for he considered in his heart that Lord Hari is the only suitable husband for his daughter. Kandarpa-manjari's complexion is the color of a kinkirata bird and her garments are decorated with many different colors.
Phullakalika's father is Srimalla and her mother is Kamalini. Phullakalika's complexion is dark like a blue lotus flower and her garments are like a rainbow.
Her forehead is naturally marked with yellow tilaka lines. Her husband, Vidura has a loud voice and is able to call the buffaloes from a great distance.
Ananga-manjari is exquistely beautiful and therefore it is very appropriate that she is named after Ananga (cupid). Her complexion is the color of a springtime ketaki flower and her garments are the color of a blue lotus.
Her proud husband Durmada is also her sister's brother-in-law. She is especially dear to Lalita and Visakha.
General Description of the Activities of Krsna's Contemporary Gopi Friends
Krsna's contemporary gopi friends decorate their own dear friend Srimati Radharani. They cheat their husbands parents and other guardians (by going to meet Radha and Krsna) and they take Srimati Radharani's side when she has a lover's quarrel with Lord Hari.
These gopis assist Radha and Krsna in Their secret rendezvous. These gopis serve palatable meals to the divine couple and afterward relish tasting the remnants left by Them. These gopis carefully guard the secret of Radha's and Krsna's confidential pastimes together.
Their minds are pure and they are very expert and intelligent. They serve Radha and Krsna very appropriately. They glorify their own group and criticize the followers of Candravali, Radharani's rival.
They please Radha and Krsna by expertly singing, dancing and playing instrumental music. At the appropriate time they beg to be engaged in various appropriate services.
For the most part the learned devotees know about these activities of Krsna's gopi friends. All the gopis are aware of these and all the other similar services and they actively serve Radha and Krsna by performing these activities.
The gopis who are close associates of the divine couple are directly engaged in these services, whereas other gopis are not. We shall now describe, one by one, the gopis engaged in these intimate services.
Among these most exalted gopis who are most dear to Krsna, the leader and controller is Lalita-devi.
Lalita-devi is full of ecstatic love for the divine couple. She is expert at arranging both Their meeting and Their conjugal struggle. Sometimes, for Radha's sake, she offends Lord Madhava.
The beauty of all the other gopis appears to be conserved in the form of Lalita-devi. In an argument her mouth becomes bent with ferocious anger and she expertly speaks the most outrageous and arrogant replies.
When the arrogant gopis pick a quarrel with Krsna, she is in the forefront of the conflict. When Radha and Krsna meet, she audaciously remains standing a little away from them.
With the help of Purnamasi-devi and the other gopis she arranges for the meeting of Radha and Krsna. She carries the parasol for the divine couple, she decorates Them with flowers and she decorates the cottage where They rest at night and rise in the morning.
132 - 133
Some gopis serve the divine couple in the garden known as Madanonmadini among the flowering creepers, betel creepers and betel trees. Some gopis are expert at playing various magic tricks, some are expert at composing riddles and some are appointed to provide betel nuts for the divine couple. All these gopis are the servants of Srimati Radharani.
Other gopis are specifically the friends of Lord Baladeva. Lalita-devi is the leader and controller of all these exalted and worshipable young gopis.
Ratnalekha and the eight other dear vara-gopis described here all follow the footsteps of Lalita-devi always and in all respects.
Among these eight gopis Ratnaprabha-dvie and Ratikala-devi are famous for their transcendental virtues, beauty, experise and charming sweetness.
137 - 138
The flower ornaments of the divine couple are 1. flower crown, 2. flowers in the hair, 3. flower earrings, 4. flowers decorating the forehead, 5. flower necklaces, 6. flower armlets, 7. flower sashes, 8. flower braelets, 9. flower anklets, 10. flower bodices and many other kinds of flower ornaments. Just as these ornaments may be fashioned from precious jewels, gold or other materials, in the same way they may be made of flowers.
139 - 140
The divine couple's crowns may be made of rangini flowers, yellow jasmine flowers, navamali flowers, sumali flowers, dhrti gems, rubies, gomeda gems, pearls or splendid moonstones. These may be artistically arranged to construct beautiful crowns.
The crowns may be made with seven points and they may also have gold ketaki flowers or various flower buds among their colorful and beautiful ingredients. These crowns enchant the mind of Lord Hari.
The flower crowns known as puspapara are the best of all and they are more pleasing than even the best jeweled crowns (ratnapara). Lalita-devi learned how to make these puspapara crowns from Srimati Radharani.
These puspapara crowns are made with flowers and flower buds of five different colors arranged in five points. This crown is especially used to decorate Srimati Radharani.
A garland of flower buds and similar ingredients closely strung together and placed on the hair is called balapasya.
Skilled craftsmen say there are five kinds of earrings. They are known by the names tadanka, kundala, puspi, karnika and karna-vestana.
A hollow gold post worn in the ear is called a tadanka. This kind of earring is of two varieties. In the first variety the petal of golden ketaki flower is attached to this earring. In the second kind the petal of some other colorful flower is attached.
When an earring is fashioned from flowers in order to resemble a certain object, the earring is called kundala. There are many different kinds of kundala earrings. The flowers may be arranged to resemble a peacock, shark, lotus, half-moon or many other things.
The puspi earrings is fashioned from four different kinds of flowers placed in a circle with a large gunja berry in the middle.
The karnika earring is fashioned from the whorl of a blue lotus surrounded by yellow flowers. In the middle are a bhrngika flower and pomegranate flower.
When the flower earring is so large it completely covers the ear, the earring is known as karna-vetsana.
Decoration for the Forehead.
A garland of flowers placed on the upper forehead along the hairline is called lalatika. Such a garland should have flowers of two colors : red in the middle of the garland and the other color flowers on the two sides.
Graivekyaka (flower collar)
Made of a single kind of flower, a necklace strung four times around the neck is called graiveyaka.
A flower-armlet (angada) may be fashioned of three kinds of flowers strung one after another to resemble a little flower creeper.
A sash made of flowers of five different colors, artistically strung together in a gently waving pattern, is called a kanci.
Kataka (flower anklets)
Anklets made of many different flower buds are called kataka. These are of many different varieties.
A bracelet made of flowers of four colors, with bunches of flowers hanging down at three places, is called mani-bandhani.
Hamsaka (flower shoes)
When the decoration of flowers covers the entire top and side parts of the feet and there are bunches of flowers in four places, such a decoration is called hamsaka.
Kanculi (flower bodice)
A bodice made of flowers of six colors, artistically arranged and perfumed with musk and which begins from the neck, is called kanculi.
Made of thin white sticks, decorated with white flowers and with a handle decorated with yellow jasmine flowers, a flower parasol is called a chatra.
The couch is fashioned of campaka and malli flowers and decorated with small bells. It has a large cushion of navamali flowers.
Ulloca (an awning)
An awning is made of a latticework of various colorful flowers, ketaki petals and various leaves. Many malli flowers hang down from this awning.
Candratapa (an awning)
When many sindhuvara flowers as white as pearls decorate the sides and fresh lotus flowers hang down in the middle, the awning is called candratapa.
With reeds as pillars and various colorful flowers as the roof and four walls, a vesma (flower cottage0 is constructed.
Vrnda, Vrndarika, Mela and Murali are the most important gopi messengers. The gopi messengers expertly know the geograhy of Vrndavana and they intimately know each grove and garden there. They are also learned in the science of gardening.
These exalted gopi messengers are all filled with great love for Sri Sri Radha and Krsna. The gopi messengers are fair complexioned and they dress in colorful garments. Vrnda-devi is the most important among them.
Visakha-devi, the intimate friend of the divine couple, although she is more exalted than these younger gopis, also takes up the work of carrying messages between Radha and Krsna and she is the most intelligent and expert of all the gopi messengers. Loquacious Visakha is expert at joking with Lord Govinda and she is the perfect counsellor of the divine couple. She is expert at all aspects of amorous diplomacy and she knows all the arts of how to conciliate an angered lover, how to bribe him and how to quarrel with him.
Rangavali-devi and other gopis are expert at drawing various designs in tilaka, artistically stringing flower garlands, composing clever verses and acrostics such as sarvatobhadra, conjuring magical illusions by chanting mantras, worshipable the sun god with various paraphernalia, singing in various foreign languages and composing different kinds of poetry.
Maidservants who dress Srimati Radharani.
Madhavai, Malati, and Candrarekha are the leaders the gopi servants who dress and decorate Srimati Radharani.
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The gopi messengers appointed by Vrnda-devi have the flowering trees of Vrndavana under their jurisdiction. Malika-devi isthe leader of these wonderfully blissful gopis. In addition to these two groups of gopi messengers (1. Visakha and 2. the followers of Vrnda-devi), Campakalata-devi is the third of the gopi messengers.
Campakalata veils her activities in great secrecy. She is expert at the art of logical persuasion, and she is killed diplomat who knows how to thwart Srimati Radharani's rivals.
Campakalata is expert at collecting fruits, flowers, and roots from the forest. Using only the skill of her hands shecan artistically fashion things from clay.
Campakalata is an expert cook who knows all the literature describing the six flavors of gourmet cooking. She is so expert at making various kinds of candythat she has become famous by the name Mistahasta (sweet hands).
There are also eight gopi maidservants expert at cooking various preparations from the milk products Vraja village. Kurangaksi-devi is the leader of these gopi cooks.
Activities of the Eight Principal Gopies Of all these gopis who are appointed as protectoresses of the trees, creepers, and bushes of Vrndavana, the leader is Campakalata-devi.
Citra-devi is wonderfully expert in all the activities wehavejust described. She is especially expert in the lover's quarrel between Radha and Krsna (the third of the six definitions of the word abhisarana).
Citra-devi can read between the lines of books and letters written in many different languages, perceiving the hidden intentions of the author. She is a skilled gourmet and can understand the testes of various foods made with honey, milk, and other ingredients simply by glancing at them.
She is expert in playing music on pots filled with varying degrees of water. She is learned in the literature describing astronomy and astrology, and she is well versed in the theoretical and practical activities of protecting domestic animals.
She is especially expert at gardenting and she can nicely make various kinds of nectarean beverages.
There are also eight other gopi maidservants, headed by Rasalika-devi, who are expert at making various kinds of nectarean beverages.
There are other gopis who mostly collect transcendental herbs and medicinal creepers from the forest and do not collect flowers or anything else. Citra-devi is the leader of these gopis.
Tungavidya is one of the leaders of the gopis. She is learned in the eighteen branches of knowledge.
She has full faith in Krsna. She is very expert at arranging the meeting of the divine couple. She is learned in rasa-sastra (transcendental mellows), niti-sastra(morality), dancing, drama, literature and all other arts and sciences.
She is a celebrated music teacher expert at playing the vina and singing in the style known as marga.
Eight gopi messengers headed by Manjumedha-devi are especially expect at arranging political alliances (sandhi) the first of diplomatic maneuvers in the art of politics between Radha and Krsna.
These gopis are the best of dancers. They are musicians expert at playing the mrdanga and singing in recital halls.
These gopis are especially engaged in fetching water from the streams in Vrndavana. Tungavidya is the leader of these gopis.
Noble Indulekha is learned in the science and mantras of the Naga-sastra, which describes various methods of charming snakes. She is also learned in the Samudraka-sastra, which describes the science of palmistry.
She is expert at stringing various kinds of wonderful necklaces, decorating the teeth with red substances, gemology and weaving various kinds of cloth.
In her hand she carries the auspicious messages of the divine couple. In this way she creates the good fortune of Radha and Krsna by creating Their mutual love and attraction.
The group of gopis headed by Tungabhadra-devi are the friends and neighours of Indulekha. Among these gopis is a group, headed by Palindhika-devi, which acts as messengers for the divine couple.
Indulekha-devi is fully aware of the confidential secrets of the divine couple. Some of her friends are engaged in providing ornaments for the divine couple, others provide exquisite garments and others guard the divine couple's treasury.
Indulekha-devi is thus the leader of all the gopis engaged in these services in the various parts of Vrndavana.
Ranga-devi is always like a great ocean of coquettish words and gestures. She is very fond of joking with her friend Srimati Radharani in the presence of Lord Krishna.
Among the six activities of diplomacy she is especially expert in the fourth : patiently waiting for the enemy to make the next move. She is an expert logician and because of previous austerities she has attained a mantra by which she can attract Lord Krsna.
Kalakanti-devi is the leader of the eight most important friends of Ranga-devi. These friends are all expert in the use of perfumes and cosmetics.
Ranga-devi's friends are expert at burning aromatic incense, carrying coal during the winter and fanning the divine couple in the summer.
Ranga-devi's friends are able to control the lions, deer and other wild animals in the forest. Ranga-devi is the leader of all these gopis.
Sudevi always remains at the side of her dear friend Srimati Radharani. Sudevi arranges Radharani's hair, decorates Her eyes with mascara and massages Her body.
She is expert in training male and female parrots and she is also expert in the pastimes of roosters. She is an expert sailor and she is fully aware of the auspicious and inauspicious omens described in the Sakuna-sastra.
She is expert at massaging the body with scented oils, she knows how to start fires and keep them burning and she knows which flowers blossom with the rising of the moon.
Kaveri-devi and the other friends of Sudevi are expert at constructing leaf-spitoons, playing music on bells and decorating couches in various ways.
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Sudevi's friends are also entrusted with the decoration of the divine couple's sitting place. Sudevi's friends act as clever spies, disguising themselves in various ways and moving among Radharani's rivals (Candravali and her friends) to discover their secrets. Sudevi's friends are the deities of Vrndavana forest and they are charged with the protection of the forest birds and bees. Sudevi is the leader of these gopis.
Description of the Various Gopis
The wonderful arts, crafts and other duties that comprise the activities of the gopis will now be described.
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Pindaka-devi, Nirvitandika-devi, Pundarika-devi, Sitakhandi-devi, Carucandi-devi, Sudantika-devi, Akunthita-devi, Kalakanthi-devi, Ramaci-devi and Mecika-devi are among the gopis who are very strong and stubborn when there is an argument or conflict. Among them Pindaka-devi is the leader. She dresses in red garments. She is very beautiful. When Lord Krsna comes she embarrasses Him by attacking Him with many ferocious witty puns.
Haridrabha-devi, Hariccela-devi and Harimitra-devi speak many illogical and frivolous objections as they lead Lord Krsna to the place where Srimati Radharani waits for Him.
Pundarika-devi's garments and complexion are both the color of a white lotus flower. She ferociously mocks lotus-eyed Lord Krsna.
Gauri-devi always wears white garments. Her complexion is the color of a peacock. Because her sweet and charming words are often laced with acid sarcasms, Lord Krsna jokingly calls her Sitakhandi (always sweet).
Gauri-devi's sister is known as Carucandi because her words are sometimes mild and pleasant (caru) and sometimes harsh and violent (candi). Carucandi's complexion is the color of a black bee and her garments are the color of lightning.
Sudantika-devi wears garments the color of a kurunthaka flower. Her complexion is the color of a sirisa flower. She is expert at inflaming the amorous sentiments of ujjvala-rasa.
Akunthita-devi's complexion is the color of a lotus stem. She wears white garments the color of the fibers within a lotus stem. She likes to insult Krsna for the amusement of her gopi friends.
Kalakanthi-devi's complexion is the color of a kuli flower and her garments are the color of milk. She speaks to Lord Krnsa, describing Radharani's jealous anger and advising Him to beg forgiveness from Her.
Ramaci-devi's is the daughter of Lalita-devi's nurse. Ramaci's complexion is golden and her garments are the color of a parrot. She takes pleasure in jokingly insulting Krsna and laughing at Him.
Ramaci-devi always wears white garments. Her complexion is the color of a pinda flower. She is expert at insulting Lord Krnsa.
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Petari-devi, Varuda-devi, Cari-devi, Kotari-devi, Kalatippani-devi, Marunda-devi, Morata-devi, Cuda-devi, Cundari-devi and Gondika-devi are the leaders of those gopi messengers who are past the prime of youth. These older gopis can argue with great stubbornness and they can also nicely sing as the divine couple take their meal. These gopis are always engaged in making arrangements for the forest pastimes of the divine couple.
Petari-devi is an elderly Gujarati lady whose hair is the color of fibers within a lotus stem. Varudi-devi is a native of Garuda-desa and her braided hair is like the current of a river.
Cari-devi, who is Kucari-devi's siste, is also known by the name Tapahkatyayani, because she performed severe austerities (tapah) and took shelter of goddess Katyayani (Durga). Kotari-devi was born in the abhira caste. Her hair is a mixture of black and white resembling rice mixed with toasted sesame seeds.
Kalatippani-devi is an elderly washerwoman with white hair. Marunda-devi has white eyebrows and a shaved head.
Agile Morata-devi has hair the color of a kasa flower. Cuda-devi has a wrinkled face and a forehead decorated with many grey hairs.
The brahmani Cundari-devi is not as old as the others. Lotus-eyed Lord Krsna glorifies her and treats her with great respect. Gondika-devi shaves the splendid white hairs on her head. Her cheeks are wrinkled with age.
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Gopi Messengers who Arrange the Meeting of the Divine Couple
Sivada-devi, Saumyadarsana-devi, Suprasada-devi, Sadasanta-devi, Santida-devi and Kantida-devi are the leaders of the gopi messengers who expertly arrange the meeting of Radha and Krsna. These gopis consider Lalita-devi to be their dearmost life and soul. They are counted among the intimate associates of Lord Krsna.
At a certain time Srimati Radharani quarrels with Lord Krsna and refuses to see Him. Understanding the hints of Lalita-devi, these gopis then approach Lord Krsna.
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These gopis appease Lord Krsna and please Him in different ways. With great effort they convince Him that His actual desire is to meet Radha again. When These gopis bring to Her the gift that Lord Krsna gave them as a peace offering, Srimati Radharani becomes very pleased with them and grants them Her mercy.
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Sivada-devi was born in the Ragyhu dynasty, Saumyadarsana-devi in the dynasty of the moon-god, Suprasada-devi in the Puru dynasty, Sadasanta-devi in a family of ascetics and Santida and Kantida in brahmana families. By the mercy of Narada Muni they were all able to reside in Vraja.
The Second Gruop of Gopis
After this first group of gopis there is a second group of gopis, whose love for the divine couple is a little less than that of the first group. This second group of gopis may again be divided into two groups : sama-prema and asama-prema. These gopis will be described in the following verses.
The sama-prema gopis may be divided into two groups - those who are eternally perfect and those who have attained perfection by engaging in devotional service.
Out of one hundred million gopis, eight hundred thousand are eternally perfect.
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The direct followers of the eight principal gopis are counted in different ways. Some say they number five thousand, others say they number four or five thousand, still others say they number three or four thousand and still others say they number one thousand.
Some say the followers of the eight principal gopis are divided into many groups and others say they are not divided into groups at all. Some say they are divided into sixteen groups according to the nature of their love for the divine couple.
Some say these gopis are divided into twenty groups, some say there are twenty-five groups, some say there are thirty, some say there are sixty and some say there are sixty-four groups of gopis.
Some say this group of gopis is in turn divided into two subgroups. Others say it is divided into two or three subgroups and others say it is divided into three or four subgroups.
The entire gopi community may be divided in different ways. Some say there are forty groups of gopis and others that there are five hundred groups.
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Aside from the eight varistha-gopas and the eight vara-gopis, sixty four gopis are considered most important. Their names are : 1. Ratnaprabha, 2. Ratikala, 3. Subhadra, 4. Ratika, 5. Sumukhi, 6. Dhanistha, 7. Kalahamsi, 8. Kalapini, 9. Madhavi, 10. Malati, 11. Candrarekha, 12. Kunjari, 13. Harini, 14. Capala, 15. Damni, 16. Surabhi, 17. Subhanana, 18. Kurangaksi, 19. Sucarita, 20. Mandali, 21. Manikundala, 22. Candrika, 23. Candralatika, 24. Pankajaksi, 25. Sumandira, 26. Rasalika, 27. Tilakini, 28. Sauraseni, 29. Sugandhika, 30. Ramani, 31. Kamanagari, 32. Nagari, 33. Nagavenika, 34. Manjumedha, 35. Sumadhura, 36. Sumadhya, 37. Madhureksana, 38. Tanumadhya, 39. Madhuspanda, 40. Gunacuda, 41. Varangada, 42. Tungabhadra, 43. Rasottunga, 44. Rangavati, 45. Susangata, 46. Citrarekha, 47. Vicitrangi, 48. Modini, 49. Madanalasa, 50. Kalakanthi, 51. Sasikala, 52. Kamala, 53. Madhurendira, 54. Kandarpa-sundari, 55. Kamalatika, 56. Prema-manjari, 57. Kaveri, 58. Carukavara, 59. Sukesi, 60. Manjukesi, 61. Harahira, 62. Mahahira, 63. Harakanthi, 64. Manohara.
The Sammohana-tantra's Description of Srimati Radharani's Eight Principal Friends
A different list of Srimati Radharani's eight principal gopi friends is found in the following statement of Sammohana-tantra : " Lilavati, Sadhika, Candrika, Madhavi, Lalita, Vijaya, Gauri and Nandi are the eight principal gopi friends of Srimati Radharani."
Another Description of the Eight Principal Gopis
Another quotation from Vedic literature gives the following description : " Kalavati, Srimati, Sudhamukhi, Visakha, Kaumudi, Madhvi and Sarada are the eight prinicpal gopis.
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The numbers presented in this description of the gopis has no actual relevance to the number of eternally liberated gopis in the spiritual world. There the associates of the king and queen of Vrndavana are unlimited in number. No one can count them. We have simply given some hints so the reader may understand the vast number of the associates of the divine couple.
Preparing the divine couple's couch, food, drink and betel nuts, swinging Them on a swing and decorating Them with tilaka are among the many services performed by the gopis. The learned devotees may research this and enumerate all these services.
Rupa Goswami prays that the effulgent Krsna-sun may remove the blindness from his eyes and enable him to properly see and understand the various rasa-sastras that describe Sri Sri Radha-Krsna and Their associates.
In the year 1472 of the Saka era (1550 A.D.) on Sunday, the sixth day of the month of Sravana, at Nandagrama, the home of the king of Vraja, this book, the Radha-Krsna-ganoddesa-dipika was completed.
Sri Krsna's Transcendental Form and Attributes
Sri Krsna's form glistens with the black mascara of the sweetness of His nectarean handsomeness. His complexion is the color of a blue lotus flower or a sapphire.
His complexion is as enchanting as an emerald, a tamala tree, or a group of beautiful dark clouds. He is an ocean of nectarean handsomeness.
He wears yellow garments and a garland of forest flowers. He is decorated with various jewels and He is a great reservoir of the nectar of many transcendental pastimes.
He has long, curling hair and He is anointed with many fragrant scents. His handsome crown is decorated with many different flowers.
His handsome forehead is splendidly decorated with tilaka markings and curling locks of hair. The playful movements of His raised, dark eyebrows enchant the hearts of the gopis.
His rolling eyes are as splendid as red and blue lotus flowers. The tip of His nose is as handsome as the beak of Garuda, the king of birds.
His charming ears and cheeks are decorated with earrings made of various jewels.
His handsome lotus face is as splendid as millions of moons. He speaks many charming jokes and His chin is exquisitely handsome.
His handsome, smooth and charming neck bends in three places. Decorated with a necklace of pearls, the beauty of His neck enchants the residents of the three planetary systems.
Decorated with a necklace of pearls and with the Kaustubha gem, which shines like lightning, Krsna's handsome chest longs to enjoy the company of the beautiful gopis.
Decorated with bracelets and armlets, Krsna's arms hang down to His knees. His reddish lotus hands are decorated with various auspicious signs.
Krsna's hands are beautifully decorated with the auspicious signs of a club, conchshell, barleycorn, parasol, half-moon, rod for controlling elephants, flag, lotus flower, sacrificial post, plow, pitcher and fish.
Krsna's charming abdomen is the pastime abode of handsomeness. His nectarean back seems to long for the playful touch of the beautiful gopis.
The nectarean lotus flower that is Lord Krsna's hips bewilders the demigod Cupid. Krsna's thighs are like two beautiful plantain trees that charm the hearts of all women.
Krsna's knees are very splendid, charming and handsome. His charming lotus feet are decorated with jeweled ankle-bells.
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Krsna's feet have the luster of roses, and they are decorated with various auspicious markings, such as the markings of the disc, half-moon, octagon, triangle, barleycorn, sky, parasol, waterpot, conchshell, cow's hoofprint, svastika, rod for controlling elephants, lotus flower, bow and jambu fruit.
Krsna's handsome lotus feet are like two oceans filled with the happiness of pure love. His reddish toes are decorated with the row fo full moons that are His toenails.
Although we have sometimes compared Krsna's handsomeness to various things, nothing can actually be equal to it. In this place we have given a small indication of Krsna's handsomeness to arouse the attraction of the reader.
Now Lord Krsna's friends will be described. The most important of Krsna's friends is His elder brother, Balarama.
Different Kinds of Friends
Krsna's friends are divided into four groups : 1. well-wishing friends (suhrt), 2. ordinary friends (sakha), 3. more confidential friends (priya-sakha), and 4. initmate friends (priya-narma-sakha)
Well-wishing Friends (suhrt)
The well-wishing friends include Krsna's cousins : Subhadra, Kundala, Dandi and Mandala. Sunandana, Nandi, Anandi and others who accompany Krsna as He herds the cows and calves in Vrndavana forest are also well-wishing friends.
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Also included among the well-wishing friends are Subhadra, Mandalibhadra, Bhadravardhana, Gobhata, Yaksendra, Bhata, Bhadranga, Virabhadra, Mahaguna, Kulavira, Mahabhima, Divyasakti, Suraprabha, Ranasthira and others. These well-wishing friends are older than Krsna and they try to protect Him from any danger.
Krsna's parents love their son very dearly. They consider Him many millions of times more important than their own life's breath. Very frightened that the demon Kamsa would harm their son, they engaged these well-wishing friends (suhrt) to protect Him. The leader of these well-wishing friends is a boy named Vijayaksa, whose mother, Ambika-devi, was Krsna's nurse. Ambika-devi worshiped goddess Parvati and performed great austerities to get a powerful son who could protect Krsna.
Subhadra has a splendid dark complexion. He wears yellow garments and various ornaments.
Subhadra's father is Upananda, and his mother the chaste and faithful Tula-devi. Kundalata-devi will become his wife. Subhadra is full of the glory of youth.
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Krsna's Ordinary Friends (sakha)
Visala, Vrsabha, Ojasvi, Devaprastha, Varuthapa, Mandara, Kusumapida, Manibandhakara, Mandara, Candana, Kunda, Kalindi, Kulika and many others are included in the group of Krsna's ordinary friends (sakha). These friends are younger than Krsna and are always eager to serve Him.
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Krsna's confidential friends (priya-sakha)
Krsna's confidential friends are Sridama, Sudama, Dama, Vasudama, Kinkini, Bhadrasena, Amsu, Stokakrsna, Vilasi, Pundarika, Vitankaksa, Kalavinka and Priyaskara. These friends are the smae age of Krsna. Their leader is Sridama, who is also known as Pithamardaka.
Bhadrasena is the general who leads Krsna's childhood friends in military pastimes. Stokakrsna is very appropriately named, for he is just like a small (stoka) Krsna.
These confidential friends (priya-sakha) delights Lord Krsna with their enthusiastic and jubliant wrestling, stick-fighting and other sports.
These confidential friends are all very peaceful by nature. Each of them considers Lord Krsna equal to his own life's breath.
Krsna's Intimate Friends (priya-narma-sakha)
Subala, Arjuna, Gandharva, Vasanta, Ujjvala, Kokila, Sanandana and Vidagdha are the msot important of Krsna's intimate friends.
Krsna keeps no secrets from these intimate friends. Among them Madhumangala, Puspanka and Hasanka are the leaders of those fond of joking. Handsome Sanandana is very pleased by his close friendship with Krsna and splendid Ujjvala appears like the personified ruler of all transcendental mellows. Lord Krsna, the crest jewel of playful boys, is submissive to His dear friend Ujjvala.
Sridama has a handsome dark complexion. He wears yellow garments and a necklace of jewels.
He is a splendid youth sixteen years old. He is a great resevoir of the nectar of innumerable transcendental pastimes. He is Lord Krsna's dearest friend.
His father is Maharaj Vrsabhanu and His mother is the chaste Kirtida-devi. Srimati Radharani and Ananga-manjari are his two younger sisters.
Sudama's handsome complexion is somewhat fair. He is decorated with jeweled ornaments and wears blue garments.
His father's name is Matuka and His mother is Rocana-devi. He is very young and fond of playing many kinds of games.
Subala has a fair complexion. He wears handsome blue garments and he is decorated wtih many kinds of jewels and flowers.
He is twelve-and-a-half years old and He glows with youthful luster. Although he is Krsna's friend, he is immersed in serving Krsna in many different ways.
He is expert at arranging the meeting of the divine couple. He is charming and full of transcendental love for Them. He is cheerful and full of good qualities. He is very dear to Krsna.
Arjuna's glistening complexion is the color of a red lotus flower. His garments are the color of moonlight and He is decorated with many kinds of jewels.
His father is Sudaksina, his mother Bhadra-devi, and his elder brother Vasudama. He is always plunged in transcendental love for the divine couple.
He is fourteen-and-a half and full of the luster of youth. He wears a garland of forest flowers and many other kinds of flower-ornaments.
Handsome Gandharva has a complexion the color of moonlight. He wears red garments and many different ornaments.
He is twelve years old and full of youthful luster. He is decorated with many kinds of flowers.
His mother is the saintly Mitra-devi and his father the great soul Vinoka. He is very playful and very dear to Sri Krsna.
Vasanta has a splendid fair complexion. His garments glitter like the moon and he is decorated with various jewels.
He is eleven years old. He is decorated with many different flower garlands. His mother is the saintly Saradi-devi and his father is the great soul Pingala.
Ujjvala has a splendid reddish complexion. His garments are decorated with star patterns and he is decorated with pearls and flowers.
His father is named Sagara and his mother is the chaste Veni-devi. He is thirteen years old and full of youthfull luster.
Kokila is fair-complexioned and very handsome. He wears blue garments and is decorated with many kinds of jewels.
He is eleven years and four months of age. His father is named Puskara and his mother is the famous Medha-devi.
Handsome Sanandana has a fair complexion. He wears blue garments and is decorated with many different ornaments.
He is fourteen years old. He wears garlands of flowers. His father is Arunaksa and his mother is Mallika-devi.
Handsome Sanandana is very happy to have the friendship of Lord Krsna. He is like the splendid monarch of all transcendental mellows.
Vidagdha has a splendid complexion the color of a yellow campaka flower. He wears blue garments and a necklace of pearls.
He is fourteen years old and full of youthful luster. His father is named Matuka and his mother is Rocana-devi.
His elder brother is Sudama and his sister is Susila-devi. He is very dear to Sri Krsna. He is full of transcendental love for the divine couple.
Madhumangala has a slightly dark complexion. He wears yellow garments and a garlands of forest flowers.
His father is the saintly Sandipani Muni, his mother the chaste Sumukhi devi, his sister is Nandimukhi-devi and his parental grandmother is Paurnamasi-devi.
An expert comedian who always plays the buffoon, Sri Madhumangala is the constant companion of Lord Krsna.
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Powerful Lord Balarama has a fair complexion the color of crystal. He wears blue garments and a garland of forest flowers.
His handsome hair is tied in a graceful topknot. Splendid earrings decorate His ears.
His neck is splendidly decorated with garlands of flowers and strings of jewels. His arms are splendidly decorated with bracelets and armlets.
His feet are decorated with splendid jeweled anklets. His father is Maharaja Vasudeva and His mother is Rohini-devi.
Nanda Maharaja is the friend of His father. Yasoda-devi is His mother, Sri Krsna His younger brother and Subhadra His sister.
He is sixteen years old and full of the luster of youth. He is Sri Krsna's dearest friend. He is a great reservoir of the nectar mellows of many kinds of transcendental pastimes.
Expert in music, drama, literature, the science of various kinds of scents and a host of ther arts, the vitas are very happy to serve Lord Krsna in many different ways.
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Bhangura, Brngara, Sandhika, Grahila, Raktaka, Patraka, Patri, Madhukantha, Madhuvrata, Salika, Talika, Mali, Mana and Maladhara are the most prominent of Lord Krsna's servants.
These servants carry Krsna's venu and murali flutes, buffalo-horn bugle, stick, rope and other paraphernalia. They also bring the mineral dyes (the cowherd boys use to decorate their bodies).
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Betel-nut Servants Pallva, Mangala, Phulla, Komala, Kapila, Suvilasa, Vilasaksa, Rasala, Rasasali and Jambula are the most important of Lord Krsna's betel-nut servants. They are younger than Krsna and always expert at singing and playing musical instruments. They are younger than Krsna and always stay near Him.
Payoda and Varida are the most important of the servants engaged in carrying water for Lord Krsna.
Saranga and Bakula are the most important of the servants engaged in expertly washing Lord Krsna's laundry.
Premakanda, Mahagandha, Sairindhra, Madhu, Kandala and Makaranda are the most important of the servants constantly engaged in decorating Lord Krsna with various ornaments and clothing.
Servants Who Provide Aromatic Substances
Sumanah, Kusumollasa, Puspahara, Hara and others expertly provide Krsna with various aromatic substances such as flowers, flower ornaments, flower garlands and camphor.
Svaccha, Susila, Praguna and others are engaged in various services, such as caring for the Lord's hair, massaging Him, giving Him a mirror and guarding over His treasury.
Vimala, Komala and others are engaged in various services, such as caring for the Lord's kitchen.
Dhanistha-devi, Candanakala-devi, Gunamala-devi, Ratiprabha-devi, Taruni-devi, Induprabha-devi, Sobha-devi and Rambha-devi are the leaders of the gopis engaged in Krsna's service. These gopis are expert at cleaning and decorating Krsna's home, anointing it with various aromatic substances, carrying milk and performing other duties.
Kurangi-devi, Bhrngari-devi, Sulamba-devi, Alambika-devi and other gopis also serve Krsna in these ways.
Catura, Carana, Dhiman and Pesala are the leaders of Krsna's expert spies, who travel in various disguises among the cowherd men and gopis.
Gopa Messengers Visarada, Tunga, Vavaduka, Manorama and Nitisara are the leaders of the gopa messengers. They carry Krsna's messages to the gopis to arrange for pastimes and also to settle quarrels.
Krsna's Gopi Messengers
Paurnamasi-devi, Vira-devi, Vrnda-devi, Vamsi-devi, Nandimukhi-devi, Vrndarika-devi, Mela-devi and Murali-devi are the leaders of Krsna's gopi messengers.
Among all these gopi messengers Vrnda-devi is the best. She is expert at arranging the meeting of Radha and Krsna and she is fully conversant with the geography of Vrndavana, knowing the best places for the divine couple's rendezvous.
Paurnamasi's complexion is like molten gold. She wears white garments and many jeweled ornaments.
Paurnamasi is very learned and famous. Her father is Suratadeva and her chaste mother is Candrakala. Her husband is Prabala.
Her brother is Devaprastha. She is like a perfect crest jewel decorating the land of Vraja. She is expert at making various arrangements for the meeting of Radha and Krsna.
Another gopi messenger is Vira-devi. She is very famous and is much respected in Vraja. She can speak very arrogantly and boldly and she can also speak sweet and flattering words, as Vrnda-devi does.
She has a dark complexion. She wears splendid white garments and various jewels and flower garlands.
Her husband is Kavala, her mother is the chaste Mohini-devi, her father Visala and her sister is Kavala-devi. She is very dear to Jatila-devi. She resides in the village of Javata
She is expert at making various arrangements for the meeting of Radha and Krsna.
Vrnda-devi Vrnda-devi has a beautiful complexion the color of molten gold. She wears blue garments and is decorated with pearls and flowers.
Her father is Candrabhanu and her mother is Phullara-devi. Her husband is Mahipala and her sister is Manjari-devi.
She always remains in Vrndavana, immersed in love for Radha and Krsna and yearning to both arrange for Their meeting and taste the nectar of assisting in Their transcendental pastimes.
Nandimukhi-devi has a fair complexion and wears exquisite garments. Her father is Sandipani Muni and her mother is the chaste Sumukhi-devi.
Her brother is Madhumangala and her paternal grandmother is Paurnamasi-devi. She wears various jeweled ornaments and she glows with youthful luster.
She is expert at various arts and crafts. Full of love for Radha and Krsna, she is expert at making various arrangements for Their rendezvous.
A General Description of Lord Krsna's Servants
Sobhana, Dipana and other provide lamps for the Lord and Sudhakara, Sudhanada, Sananda and others play the mrdanga for His satisfaction.
Vicitrarava and Madhurarava are the leaders of the talented an virtuous poets who compose prayers glorifying Sri Krsna, while Candrahasa, Induhasa and Candramukha are leaders of the servants who dance for the Lord's satisfaction.
Kalakantha, Sukantha, Sudhakantha, Bharata, Sarada, Vidyavilasa, Sarasa and others are learned in the arts of all kinds of literary composition. They carry their books and papers with them and they are fully aware of all the mellows fo devotional service.
Raucika is the tailor who sews clothes for the Lord. Sumukha, Durlabha, Ranjana and others wash the Lord's laundry.
Punyapunja and Bhagyarasi are the two sweepers who clean the area around Krsna's home.
Rangana and Tankana are goldsmiths who make ornaments for the Lord. Pavana and Karmatha are potters who make drinking vessels and jugs for churning butter.
Vardhaki and Vardhamana are carpenters who serve the Lord by building carts, couches and other objects. Sucitra nd Vicitra are talented artists who paint pictures for the Lord.
Kunda, Kanthola, Karanda and others are craftsmen who make ropes, churning rods, axes, baskets, balances for carrying heavy objects and various other ordinary utensils.
Mangala, Pingala, Ganga, Pisangi, Manikastani, Hamsi and Vamsipriya are the most important of the surabhi cows, who are all very dear to Lord Krsna.
Padmagandha and Pisangaksa are Krsna's pet oxen. Suranga is His pet deer and Dadhilobha is His pet monkey.
Vyaghra and Bhramaraka are Krsna's pet dogs. Kalasvana is His pet swan, Tandavika His pet peacock and Daksa and Vicaksana His pet parrots.
Places of Krsna's Pastimes Described
The best of all places of Krsna's pastimes is the great garden known as Vrndavana forest. Another important place of the Lord's pastimes is the beautiful and opulent Govardhana Hill. This Hill is very appropriately named for it nourishes (vardhana) Krsna's cows (go) with its grasses.
On Govardhana Hill is the cave known as Manikandali and the river-landing place named Nilamandapika. On the Manasa-ganga river is the famous landing place named Paranga.
The boat named Suvilasatara remains at this Paranga landing place. Another important place is Nandisvara Hill, Krsna's home, where the goddess of fortune is personally present.
On Nandisvara Hill is the splendid white stone house where Krsna grew up. This house is named Amodavardhana because it is always filled with (vardhana) the pleasant fragrance (amoda) of incense and other aromatic substances.
The lake near Krsna's home is named Pavana and on its shore there are many groves where the Lord enjoys pastimes. Also near Krsna's home is the grove named Kama Mahatirtha and the jeweled pathway named Mandara.
The splendid kadamba trees named Kadambaraj and the king of the banyan trees named Bhandira grow in the forest of Vrndavana. On the sandy bank of the Yamuna is the pastime place named Anagaranga-bhu.
On the shore of the Yamuna River is the sacred place known as Khela-tirtha, where Lord Krsna eternally enjoys pastimes with His dearmost Srimati Radharani.
Sri Krsna's Paraphernalia
Krsna's mirror is named Saradindu and His fan is named Marumaruta. His toy lotus flower is named Sadasmera and His toy ball is named Citrakoraka.
Krsna's golden bow is named Vilasakarmana. The two ends of this bow are studded with jewels and it has a bowstring named Manjulasara.
His glistening jewel-handled scissors are named Tustida. His buffalo-horn bugle is named Mandraghosa and His flute is named Bhuvanamohini.
Krsna has another flute named Mahananda, which is like a fishook that captures the fish of Srimati Radharani's heart and mind. Another flute, which has six holes is known as Madanajhankrti.
Krsna's flute named Sarala makes a low, soft tone like the sound of a softly singing cuckoo. Krsna is very fond of playing this flute in the ragas gaudi and garjari.
The wonderful sacred mantra He chants is the name of His dearmost Radharani. His cane is named Mandana, His vina is named Tarangini, the two ropes He carries are named Pasuvasikara and His milk bucket is named Amrtadohani.
On Krsna's arm is an amulet studded with nine jewels and placed there by His mother for His protection.
His two armlets are named Rangada, His two bracelets are named Sobhana, His signet ring is named Ratnamukhi and His yellow garments are named Nigamasobhana.
Krsna's string of small bell is named Kalajhankara and His two anklets are named Hamsaganjana. The tinkling sounds of these ornaments enchant the deer that are the minds of the deer-eyed gopis.
Krsna's pearl necklace is named Taravali and His jewel necklace is named Taditprabha. The locket He wears on His chest is named Hrdayamodana and within it is a picture of Srimati Radharani.
Krsna's jewel is named Kaustubha. In the Kaliya lake the Kaliya serpent's wives gave this jewel to the Lord with their own hands.
Krsna's shark-shaped earrings are named Ratiragadhidaivata, His crown is named Ratnapara and its crest-jewel is named Camaradamari.
Krsna's peacock feather crown is named Navaratnavidamba, His gunja necklace is named Ragavalli and His tilaka marking is named Drstimohana.
Krsna's garland of forest flowers and leaves, which reaches down to His feet and contains flowers of five different colors, is called Vaijayanti.
The eighth night of the dark moon in the month of Bhadra, when the moon rose together with its dear companion, the star Rohini, is the sacred time decorated by the birth of Lord Krsna in this world.
Krsna's Dear Gopis
Now the very wonderful gopis, who are decorated with the good fortune of pure love of God to a greater degree than even Laksmi-devi and the other goddesses of fortune, will be glorified.
Among all the beautiful gopis Srimati Radharani is the best. Radharani is the queen of Vrndavana. She has many famous friends, headed by Lalita and Visakha.
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Srimati Radharani's rival is Candravali. Among Candravali's friends are Padma, Syama, Saibya, Bhadra, Vicitra, Gopali, Palika, Candrasalika, Mangala, Vimala, Lila, Taralaksi, Manorama, Kandarpa-manjari, Manjubhasini, Khanjaneksana, Kumuda, Kairavi, Sari, Saradaksi, Visarada, Sankari, Kunkuma, Krsna, Sarangi, Indravali, Siva, Taravali, Gunavati, Sumukhi, Keli-manjari, Haravali, Cakoraksi, Bharati and Kamala.
The beautiful gopis may be considered in hundreds of groups, each group containing hundreds of thousands of gopis.
Among all these gopis the most important are Srimati Radharani, Candravali, Bhadra, Syama and Palika. These gopis are full of all transcendental good qualities.
Of these gopis Srimati Radharani and Candravali are the best. Each of them has millions of doe-eyed gopi followers.
Because She possesses all charm and sweetness, Srimati Radharani is the better of the two. She is supremely famous. In the Sruti-sastra She is known by the name Gandharva-devi.
Sri Krsna, the cowherd prince whose charming sweetness has no equal or superior, is very dear to Srimati Radharani. She considers Him millions and millions of times more dear than Her own life's breath.
Now the beauty of Srimati Radharani's trancendental form will be described. Srimati Radharani is expert in all the fine arts and Her transcendental form is like an ocean of nectar.
Her splendid bodily luster is like the yellow pigment gorocana, molten gold, or stationary lightning.
She wears wonderfully beautiful blue garments and She is decorated with various pearls and flowers.
She is very beautiful and She has long nicely braided hair. She is decorated with a garland of flowers and a beautiful pearl necklace.
Her splendid forehead is decorated with the red pigment sindura and with beautiful locks of curling hair.
Decorated with blue bangles, Her arms have defeated Cupid's staff with their beauty.
Decorated with black mascara and reaching back almost to Her ears, Srimati Radharani's lotus eyes are the most beautiful in all the three planetary systems.
Her nose is as beautiful as a sesame flower and it is nicely decorated with a pearl. She is anointed with various perfumes. She is splendidly beautiful.
Her ears are decorated with wonderful earrings and Her nectarean lips defeat the red lotus flowers.
Her teeth are like a row of pearls and Her tongue is very beautiful. Decorated with a nectarean smile of pure love for Krsna, Her beautiful face is a splendid as millions of moons.
The beauty of Her chin has defeated and bewildered the demigod Cupid. Decorated with a drop of musk, Her chin appears like a golden lotus flower with a bumblebee.
Bearing all the marks of wonderful beauty, Her neck is decorated with a string of pearls. Her neck, back and sides are enchantingly beautiful.
Her beautiful breasts are like two splendid waterpots covered with a bodice and decorated with a necklace of pearls.
Her beautiful enchanting arms are decorated with jeweled armlets.
Her arms are also decorated with jeweled bracelets and other kinds of jeweled ornaments. Her hands are like two red lotus flowers illuminated by the series of moons that are Her fingernails
Auspicious Markings on Srimati Radharani's Hands
Srimati Radharani's hands are decorated with many auspicious markings such as the signs of the bumblebee, lotus, crescent moon, earring, parasol, sacrificial post, conchshell, tree, flower, camara and svastika.
These auspicious marks are manifest in various ways on Srimati Radharani's lotus hands. Her splendidly beautiful fingers are also decorated with jeweled rings.
Charming, full of sweet nectar and decorated with a deep navel, Srimati Radharani's beautiful waist enchants the three worlds.
Her sloping hips lead to Her charmingly beautiful slender waist, which is bound by a creeper of three beautiful folds of skin and decorated with a sash of tinkling bells.
As beautiful as two exquisite plantain trees, Her thighs enchant the mind of Cupid. Her beautiful knees are like two reservoirs filled with the nectar of various transcendental pastimes.
Her beautiful lotus feet are decorated with jeweled ankle-bells and Her toes with toe rings as beautiful as the treasure of Varuna.
The Auspicious Markings on Srimati Radharani's Lotus Feet
The auspicious markings on Srimati Radharani's lotus feet include the signs of the conchshell, moon, elephant, barleycorn, rod for controlling elephants, chariot flag, small drum, svastika and fish.
Srimati Radharani is fifteen years old and full of the luster of youth.
Yasoda-devi, the queen of the cowherds, is more affectionate to Radharani than millions of mothers can be. Radharani's father is King Vrsabhanu, who is as splendid as the sun.
Srimati Radharani's mother is Kirtida-devi, who is also known in this world as Ratnagarbha-devi. Radharani's paternal grandfather is Mahibhanu and Her maternal grandfather is Indu.
Her maternal grandmother is Mukhara-devi and Her paternal grandmother is Sukhada-devi. Her father's brothers (Her uncles) are Ratnabhanu, Subhanu and Bhanu.
Bhadrakirti, Mahakirti and Kirticandra are Radharani's materal uncles. Menaka-devi, Sasthi-devi, Gauri-devi, Dhatri-devi and Dhataki-devi are Radharani's materal aunts.
Radharani's mother's sister is Kirtimati-devi, whose husband is Kasa. Radharani's father's sister is Bhanumudra-devi, whose husband is Kusa.
Radharani's elder brother is Sridama and Her younger sister is Ananga-manjari. Radharani's father-in-law is Vrkagopa and Her brother-in-law is Durmada.
Jatila-devi is Radharani's mother-in-law and Abhimanyu is Radharani's so-called husband. Kutila-devi, who is always eager to find fault, is Radharani's sister-in-law.
Lalita, Visakha, Sucitra, Campakalata, Ranga-devi, Sudevi, Tungavidya and Indulekha are the eight dearest friends of Srimati Radharani. These gopis are considered the leaders of all the others.
Kurangaksi, Mandali, Mankiundala, Matali, Candralalita, Madhavi, Madanalasa, Manjumedha, Sasikala, Sumadhya, Madhureksana, Kamala, Kamalatika, Gunacuda, Varangada, Madhuri, Candrika, Prema-manjari, Tanumadhyama, Kandarpa-sundari and Manjukesi are among the millions of dear friends (priya-sakhi) of Srimati Radharani.
Lasika, Kelikandali, Kadambari, Sasimukhi, Candrarekha, Priyamvada, Madonmada, Madhumati, Vasanti, Kalabhasini, Ratnavali, Manimati and Karpuralatika are among those friends (jivita-sakhi) for whom Srimati Radharani is as dear as life.
Kasturi, Manojna, Manimanjari, Sindura, Candanavati, Kaumudi and Madira are among Sriamti Radharani's eternal friends (nitya-sakhi).
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Srimati Radharani's Manjari Friends.
Ananga-manjari, Rupa-manjari, Rati-manjari, Lavanga-manjari, Raga-manjari, Rasa-manjari, Vilasa-manjari, Prema-manjari, Mani-manjari, Suvarna-manjari, Kama-manjari, Ratna-manjari, Kasturi-manjari, Gandha-manjari, Netra-manjari, Sripadma-manjari, Lila-manjari and Hema-manjari are among Srimati Radharani's manjari friends. Prema-manjari and Rati-manjari are both also known by the name Bhanumati-devi.
The Objects of Srimati Radharani's Worship
Srimati Radharani's worshipable deity is the sun-god, who enlivens the lotus flowers and acts as an eye for the entire world. Srimati Radharani's maha-mantra is the name of Lord Krsna. Srimati Radharani's benefactor, who brings Her all good fortune, is Bhagavati Paurnamasi.
Specific Description of Various Gopis
Lalita-devi and the other eight principal gopis, the other gopis and the manjari have forms that are for the most part like the transcendental form of Srimati Radharani, the queen of Vrndavana.
Vrnda-devi, Kundalat-devi and their followaers assist the divine couple in Their pastimes in the various forests of Vrndavana. Dhanistha-devi, Gunamala-devi and their followers remain in the home of Nanda Maharaja,the cowherd king and assist the Lord's pastimes from there.
Kamada-devi is the daughter of Srimati Radharani's nurse. Kamada is an especially close friend of Radharani. Ragalekha-devi, Kalakeli-devi and Manjula-devi are some of Radharani's maidservants.
Nandimukhi-devi and Bindumati-devi are the leaders of those gopis who arrange the rendezvous of Radha and Krsna. Syamala-devi and Mangala-devi are the leaders of those gopis who act as well-wishers of Srimati Radharani.
Candravali-devi is the leader of those gopis who are Srimati Radharani's rivals.
The talented musicians Rasollasa-devi, Gunatunga-devi,Kalakanthi-devi, Sukhanti-devi, and Pikakanti-devi delight Lord Hari by singing Visakha's musical compositions.
Maniki-devi, Narmada-devi, and Kusumapesala-devi serve the divine couple by playing drums, cymbals, string instruments like the vina, and wind instruments like the flute.
In this way we have described some of the sakhis (gopi friends), nitya-sakhis (eternal gopi friends), prana-sakhis (gopi friends who are as dear as life), priya-sakhis (dear gopi friends) and parama-prestha-sakhis (dearest gopi friends)
Srimati Radharani's Maidservants
Ragalekha-devi, Kalakeli-devi and Bhurida-devi are the leaders fo those gopis who are Srimati Radharani's maidservants. Among these maidservants are Sugandha-devi and Nalini-devi (the two daughters of Divakirti-devi) and Manjistha-devi and Rangaraga-devi (the two daughters of Nanda Maharaja's laundry washers).
Palindri-devi serves Srimati Radharani by dressing and decorating Her. Citrini decorates Radharani with various cosmetics. Mantriki-devi and Tantriki-devi are astrologers who reveal the future to Srimati Radharani.
Katyayani-devi is the leader of those gopi messengers who are older than Srimati Radharani. Bhagyavati-devi and Punyapunja-devi, the two daughters of Maharaja Nanda's sweeper, are also the maidservants of Srimati Radharani.
Tunga-devi, Malli-devi and Matalli-devi are the leaders of those girls descended from the uncivilized mountain tribe known as the Pulindas. In Vrndavana some of the Pulinda girls act as the friends of Srimati Radharani and some are the friends of Sri Krsna.
Also included among Srimati Radharani's servants are Gargi-devi and other very respectable brahmana girls, Bhrngarika-devi and other girls from the ceti community, Vijaya-devi, Rasala-devi, Payoda-devi and other girls from the vita community, as well as the boys Subala, Ujjvala, Gandharva, Madhumangala and Raktaka.
Tunga-devi, Pisangi-devi and Kalakandala-devi always remain near Srimati Radharani to serve Her. Manjual-devi, Bindula-devi, Sandha-devi, Mrdula-devi and others, although very young still engage in Radharani's service.
Sunada, Yamuna and Bahula are the most important of Srimati Radharani's pet surabhi cows. Tungi is Her chubby pet calf, Kakkhati is Her old pet monkey, Rangini is Her pet doe and Carucnadrika is Her pet cakori bird.
Tundikeri is the name of Radharani's pet swan, who is fond of swimming in Radha-kunda. Madhuri is Radharani's pet elephant and Suksmadhi and Subha are Her two pet parrots.
The two parrots perfectly imitate Lalita-devi's playful jokes spoken to her master and mistress (Sri Sri Radha-Krsna). By this wonderful repetition the parrots astonish the gopis.
Srimati Radharani's Ornaments
Srimati Radharani's tilaka marking is named Smarayantra. Her jeweled necklace is named Harimohana, Her jeweled earrings are named Rocana and the pearl decorating Her nose is named Prabhakari.
Her locket which contains a picture of Lord Krsna, is named Madana. Her Syamantaka jewel is also known as Sankhacuda-siromani 9Sankhacuda's crest-jewel).
The auspicious jewel She wears around Her neck is called Puspavan because it eclipses the simultaneous rising of the sun and moon (puspavan0 with its splendor. Her anklets are called Catakarava because their tinkling sounds resemble the warbling of cataka birds. Her bracelets are called Manikarvura.
Srimati Radharani's signet ring is named Vipaksamardini. Her sash is named Kancanacitrangi and Her ankle-bells, which stun Lord Krsna with their tinkling sounds, are named Ratnagopura.
Srimati Radharani's garments are named Meghambara. Her upper garment is red like a ruby and it is the favorite of Lord Hari. Radharani's lower garment is the color of a blue cloud and it is Her own favorite.
Srimati Radhrani's jeweled mirror is named Sudhamsudarpaharana, which means "that which removes (harana) the moon's (sudhamsu) pride (darpa)."
Her golden stick for applying mascara is named Narmada, Her jeweled comb is named Svastida and Her private flower garden is named Kandarpakuhali.
In Radharani's garden is a vine of golden jasmine flowers that She has named Tadidvalli ("the vine of lightning"). Her private lake bears Her own name (Radha-kunda) and on the shore of that lake is a kadamba tree that is the site of very confidential talks between Her and Lord Krsna.
Her favorite ragas are mallara and dhanasri and Her favorite dances are chalikya and rudravallaki.
Srimati Radharani's glorious birth occured on the eighth day of the bright moon in the month of Bhadra. Although generally not full on that day, the moon appeared full to celebrate Radharani's appearance in this world.
In this way we have revealed a little about the countless associates of Sri Sri Radha and Krsna, the two monarchs of Sri Vrndavana.