maya hi yasya jagad-anda-satani sute
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
maya--the external potency; hi--indeed; yasya--of whom; jagat-anda--of universes; satani--hundreds; sute--brings forth; trai-gunya--embodying the threefold mundane qualities; tat--of that; visaya--the subject matter; veda--the Vedic knowledge; vitayamana--diffusing; sattva-avalambi--the support of all existence; para-sattvam--the ultimate entity; visuddha-sattvam--the absolute substantive principle; govindam--Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is the absolute substantive principle being the ultimate entity in the form of the support of all existence whose external potency embodies the threefold mundane qualities, viz., sattva, rajas, and tamas and diffuses the Vedic knowledge regarding the mundane world.
The active mundane quality of rajas brings forth or generates all mundane entities. The quality of sattva (mundane manifestive principle) in conjunction with rajas stands for the maintenance of the existence of entities that are so produced, and the quality of tamas represents the principle of destruction. The substantive principle, which is mixed with the threefold mundane qualities, is mundane, while the unmixed substance is transcendental. The quality of eternal existence is the principle of absolute entity. The person whose proper form abides in that essence, is alone unalloyed entity. nonmundane, supermundane and free from all mundane quality. He is cognitive bliss. It is the deluding energy who has elaborated the regulative knowledge (Vedas) bearing on the threefold mundane quality.
ananda--blissful; cit-maya--cognitive; rasa--of rasa; atmataya--due to being the entity; manahsu--in the minds; yah--He who; praninam--of living entities; pratiphalan--being reflected; smaratam upetya--recollecting; lilayitena--by pastimes; bhuvanani--the mundane world; jayati--triumphantly dominates; ajasram--ever; govindam--Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose glory ever triumphantly dominates the mundane world by the activity of His own pastimes, being reflected in the mind of recollecting souls as the transcendental entity of ever-blissful cognitive rasa.
Those who constantly recollect in accordance with spiritual instructions the name, figure, attributes and pastimes of the form of Krsna appearing in the amorous rasa, whose loveliness vanquishes the god of mundane love, conqueror of all mundane hearts, are alone meditators of Krsna. Krsna, who is full of pastimes, always manifests Himself with His realm only in the pure receptive cognition of such persons. The pastimes of that manifested divine realm triumphantly dominates in every way all the majesty and beauty of the mundane world.
goloka-namni nija-dhamni tale ca tasya
devi mahesa-hari-dhamasu tesu tesu
te te prabhava-nicaya vihitas ca yena
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
goloka-namni--in the planet known as Goloka Vrndavana; nija-dhamni--the personal abode of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tale--in the part underneath; ca--also; tasya--of that; devi--of the goddess Durga; mahesa--of Lord Siva; hari--of Narayana; dhamasu--in the planets; tesu tesu--in each of them; te te--those respective; prabhava-nicayah--opulences; vihitah--established; ca--also; yena--by whom; govindam--Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
Lowest of all is located Devi-dhama [mundane world], next above it is Mahesa-dama [abode of Mahesa]; above Mahesa-dhama is placed Hari-dhama [abode of Hari] and above them all is located Krsna's own realm named Goloka. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, who has allotted their respective authorities to the rulers of those graded realms.
The realm of Goloka stands highest above all others. Brahma looking up to the higher position of Goloka is speaking of the other realms from the point of view of his own realm: the first in order is this mundane world called Devi-dhama consisting of the fourteen worlds, viz., Satyaloka, etc.; next above Devi-dhama is located Siva-dhama one portion of which, called Mahakala-dhama, is enveloped in darkness; interpenetrating this portion of Siva-dhama there shines the Sadasivaloka, full of great light. Above the same appears Hari-dhama or the transcendental Vaikunthaloka. The potency of Devi-dhama, in the form of the extension of Maya, and that of Sivaloka, consisting of time, space and matter, are the potency of the separated particles pervaded by the penumbral reflection of the subjective portion of the Divinity. But Hari-dhama is ever resplendent with transcendental majesty and the great splendor of all-sweetness predominates over all other majesties in Goloka. The Supreme Lord Govinda by his own direct and indirect power has constituted those respective potencies of those realms.
chayeva yasya bhuvanani bibharti durga
icchanurupam api yasya ca cestate sa
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
The external potency Maya who is of the nature of the shadow of the cit potency, is worshiped by all people as Durga, the creating, preserving and destroying agency of this mundane world. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda in accordance with whose will Durga conducts herself.
(The aforesaid presiding deity of Devi-dhama is being described.) The world, in which Brahma takes his stand and hymns the Lord of Goloka, is Devi-dhama consisting of the fourteen worlds and Durga is its presiding deity. She is ten-armed, representing the tenfold fruitive activities. She rides on the lion, representing her heroic prowess. She tramples down Mahisasura, representing the subduer of vices. She is the mother of two sons, Karttikeya and Ganesa, representing beauty and success. She is placed between Laksmi and Sarasvati, representing mundane opulence and mundane knowledge. She is armed with the twenty weapons, representing the various pious activities enjoined by the Vedas for suppression of vices. She holds the snake, representing the beauty of destructive time. Such is Durga possessing all these manifold forms. Durga is possessed of durga, which means a prison house. When jivas begotten of the marginal potency (tatastha sakti) forget the service of Krsna they are confined in the mundane prison house, the citadel of Durga. The wheel of karma is the instrument of punishment at this place. The work of purifying these penalized jivas is the duty devolved upon Durga. She is incessantly engaged in discharging the same by the will of Govinda. When, luckily. the forgetfulness of Govinda on the part of imprisoned jivas is remarked by them by coming in contact with self-realized souls and their natural aptitude for the loving service of Krsna is aroused, Durga herself then becomes the agency of their deliverance by the will of Govinda. So it behooves everybody to obtain the guileless grace of Durga, the mistress of this prison house, by propitiating her with the selfless service of Krsna. The boons received from Durga in the shape of wealth, property, recovery from illness, of wife and sons, should be realized as the deluding kindness of Durga. The mundane psychical jubilations of dasa-maha-vidya, the ten goddesses or forms of Durga, are elaborated for the delusion of the fettered souls of this world. Jiva is a spiritual atomic part of Krsna. When he forgets his service of Krsna he is at once deflected by the attracting power of Maya in this world, who throws him into the whirlpool of mundane fruitive activity (karma) by confining him in a gross body constituted by the five material elements, their five attributes and eleven senses, resembling the garb of a prisoner. In this whirlpool jiva has experience of happiness and miseries, heaven and hell. Besides this, there is a subtle body. consisting of the mind, intelligence and ego, inside the gross body. By means of the subtle body. the jiva forsakes one gross body and takes recourse to another. The jiva cannot get rid of the subtle body. full of nescience and evil desires, unless and until he is liberated. On getting rid of the subtle body he bathes in the Viraja and goes up to Hari-dhama. Such are the duties performed by Durga in accordance with the will of Govinda. In the Bhagavata sloka, vilajyamanaya... durdhiyah--the relationship between Durga and the conditioned souls has been described.
Durga, worshiped by the people of this mundane world, is the Durga described above. But the spiritual Durga, mentioned in the mantra which is the outer covering of the spiritual realm of the Supreme Lord, is the eternal maidservant of Krsna and is, therefore, the transcendental reality whose shadow, the Durga of this world, functions in this mundane world as her maidservant. (Vide the purport of sloka 3.)
ksiram yatha dadhi vikara-visesa-yogat
sanjayate na hi tatah prthag asti hetoh
yah sambhutam api tatha samupaiti karyad
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
ksiram--milk; yatha--as; dadhi--yogurt; vikara-visesa--of a special transformation; yogat--by the application; sanjayate--is transformed into; na--not; hi--indeed; tatah--from the milk; prthak--separated; asti--is; hetoh--which is the cause; yah--who; sambhutam--the nature of Lord Siva; api--also; tatha--thus; samupaiti--accepts; karyat--for the matter of some particular business; govindam--Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
Just as milk is transformed into curd by the action of acids, but yet the effect curd is neither same as, nor different from, its cause, viz., milk, so I adore the primeval Lord Govinda of whom the state of Sambhu is a transformation for the performance of the work of destruction.
(The real nature of Sambhu, the presiding deity of Mahesa-dhama, is described.) Sambhu is not a second Godhead other than Krsna. Those, who entertain such discriminating sentiment, commit a great offense against the Supreme Lord. The supremacy of Sambhu is subservient to that of Govinda; hence they are not really different from each other. The nondistinction is established by the fact that just as milk treated with acid turns into curd so Godhead becomes a subservient when He Himself attains a distinct personality by the addition of a particular element of adulteration. This personality has no independent initiative. The said adulterating principle is constituted of a combination of the stupefying quality of the deluding energy, the quality of nonplenitude of the marginal potency and a slight degree of the ecstatic-cum-cognitive principle of the plenary spiritual potency. This specifically adulterated reflection of the principle of the subjective portion of the Divinity is Sadasiva, in the form of the effulgent masculine-symbol-god Sambhu from whom Rudradeva is manifested. In the work of mundane creation as the material cause, in the work of preservation by the destruction of sundry asuras and in the work of destruction to conduct the whole operation, Govinda manifests Himself as guna-avatara in the form of Sambhu who is the separated portion of Govinda imbued with the principle of His subjective plenary portion. The personality of the destructive principle in the form of time has been identified with that of Sambhu by scriptural evidences that have been adduced in the commentary. The purport of the Bhagavata slokas, viz., vaisnavanam yatha sambhuh, etc., is that Sambhu, in pursuance of the will of Govinda, works in union with his consort Durgadevi by his own time energy. He teaches pious duties (dharma) as stepping-stones to the attainment of spiritual service in the various tantra-sastras, etc., suitable for jivas in different grades of the conditional existence. In obedience to the will of Govinda, Sambhu maintains and fosters the religion of pure devotion by preaching the cult of illusionism (Mayavada) and the speculative agama-sastras. The fifty attributes of individual souls are manifest in a far vaster measure in Sambhu and five additional attributes not attainable by jivas are also partly found in him. So Sambhu cannot be called a jiva. He is the lord of jiva but yet partakes of the nature of a separated portion of Govinda.
diparcir eva hi dasantaram abhyupetya
yas tadrg eva hi ca visnutaya vibhati
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
dipa-arcih--the flame of a lamp; eva--as; hi--certainly; dasa-antaram--another lamp; abhyupetya--expanding; dipayate--illuminates; vivrta-hetu--with its expanded cause; samana-dharma--equally powerful; yah--who; tadrk--similarly; eva--indeed; hi--certainly; ca--also; visnutaya--by His expansion as Lord Visnu; vibhati--illuminates; govindam--Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
The light of one candle being communicated to other candles, although it burns separately in them, is the same in its quality. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda who exhibits Himself equally in the same mobile manner in His various manifestations.
The presiding Deities of Hari-dhama, viz., Hari, Narayana, Visnu, etc., the subjective portions of Krsna, are being described. The majestic manifestation of Krsna is Narayana, Lord of Vaikuntha, whose subjective portion is Karanodakasayi Visnu, the prime cause, whose portion is Garbhodakasayi. Ksirodakasayi is again the subjective portion of Garbhodakasayi Visnu. The word "Visnu" indicates all-pervading, omnipresent and omniscient personality. In this sloka the activities of the subjective portions of the Divinity are enunciated by the specification of the nature of Ksirodakasayi Visnu. The personality of Visnu, the embodied form of the manifestive quality (sattva-guna) is quite distinct from that of Sambhu who is adulterated with mundane qualities. Visnu's subjective personality is on a level with that of Govinda. Both consist of the unadulterated substantive principle. Visnu in the form of the manifest causal principle is identical with Govinda as regards quality. The manifestive quality (sattva-guna) that is found to exist in the triple mundane quality, is an adulterated entity. being alloyed with the qualities of mundane activity and inertia. Brahma is the dislocated portion of the Divinity. manifested in the principle of mundane action, endowed with the functional nature of His subjective portion; and Sambhu is the dislocated portion of the Divinity manifested in the principle of mundane inertia possessing similarly the functional nature of His subjective portion. The reason for their being dislocated portions is that the two principles of mundane action and inertia being altogether wanting in the spiritual essence any entities, that are manifested in them, are located at a great distance from the Divinity Himself or His facsimiles. Although the mundane manifestive quality is of the adulterated kind, Visnu, the manifestation of the Divinity in the mundane manifestive quality. makes His appearance in the unadulterated manifestive principle which is a constituent of the mundane manifestive quality. Hence Visnu is the full subjective portion and belongs to the category of the superior isvaras. He is the Lord of the deluding potency and not alloyed with her. Visnu is the agent of Govinda's own subjective nature in the form of the prime cause. All the majestic attributes of Govinda, aggregating sixty in number, are fully present in His majestic manifestation, Narayana. Brahma and Siva are entities adulterated with mundane qualities. Though Visnu is also divine appearance in mundane quality (guna-avatara), still He is not adulterated. The appearance of Narayana in the form of Maha-Visnu, the appearance of Maha-Visnu in the form of Garbhodakasayi and the appearance of Visnu in the form of Ksirodakasayi, are examples of the ubiquitous function of the Divinity. Visnu is Godhead Himself, and the two other guna-avataras and all the other gods are entities possessing authority in subordination to Him. From the subjective majestic manifestation of the supreme self-luminous Govinda emanate Karanodakasayi, Garbhodakasayi, Ksirodakasayi and all other derivative subjective divine descents (avataras) such as Rama, etc., analogous to communicated light appearing in different candles, shining by the operation of the spiritual potency of Govinda.
yah karanarnava-jale bhajati sma yoga-
adhara-saktim avalambya param sva-murtim
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
yah--He who; karana-arnava--of the Causal Ocean; jale--in the water; bhajati--enjoys; sma--indeed; yoga-nidram--creative sleep; ananta--unlimited; jagat-anda--universes; sa--with; roma-kupah--the pores of His hair; adhara-saktim--the all-accommodating potency; avalambya--assuming; param--great; sva-murtim--own subjective form; govindam--Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
I adore the primeval Lord Govinda who assuming His own great subjective form, who bears the name of Sesa, replete with the all-accommodating potency, and reposing in the Causal Ocean with the infinity of the world in the pores of His hair, enjoys creative sleep [yoga-nidra].
(The subjective nature of Ananta who has the form of the couch of Maha-Visnu, is described.) Ananta, the same who is the infinite couch on which Maha-Visnu reposes, is a distinctive appearance of the Divinity bearing the name of Sesa, having the subjective nature of the servant of Krsna.
jivanti loma-vilaja jagad-anda-nathah
visnur mahan sa iha yasya kala-viseso
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
yasya--whose; eka--one; nisvasita--of breath; kalam--time; atha--thus; avalambya--taking shelter of; jivanti--live; loma-vila-jah--grown from the hair holes; jagat-anda-nathah--the masters of the universes (the Brahmas); visnuh mahan--the Supreme Lord Maha-Visnu; sah--that; iha--here; yasya--whose; kala-visesah--particular plenary portion or expansion; govindam--Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
Brahma and other lords of the mundane worlds, appearing from the pores of hair of Maha-Visnu, remain alive as long as the duration of one exhalation of the latter [Maha-Visnu]. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda of whose subjective personality Maha-Visnu is the portion of portion.
The supreme majesty of the subjective nature of Visnu is shown here.
bhasvan yathasma-sakalesu nijesu tejah
sviyam kiyat prakatayaty api tadvad atra
brahma ya esa jagad-anda-vidhana-karta
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
bhasvan--the illuminating sun; yatha--as; asma-sakalesu--in various types of precious stones; nijesu--his own; tejah--brilliance; sviyam--his own; kiyat--to some extent; prakatayati--manifests; api--also; tadvat--similarly; atra--here; brahma--Lord Brahma; yah--who; esah--he; jagat-anda-vidhana-karta--the chief of the universe; govindam--Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
I adore the primeval Lord Govinda from whom the separated subjective portion Brahma receives his power for the regulation of the mundane world, just as the sun manifests some portion of his own light in all the effulgent gems that bear the names of suryakanta, etc.
Brahma is two types: in certain kalpas when the potency of the Supreme Lord infuses Himself in an eligible jiva, the latter acts in the office of Brahma and creates the universe. In those kalpas when no eligible jiva is available, after the Brahma of the previous kalpa is liberated, Krsna, by the process of allotment of His own potency. creates the Brahma who has the nature of the avatara (descent) of the Divinity in the active mundane principle (rajo-guna). By principle Brahma is superior to ordinary jivas but is not the direct Divinity. The divine nature is present in a greater measure in Sambhu than in Brahma. The fundamental significance of the above is that the aggregate of fifty attributes, belonging to the jiva, are present in a fuller measure in Brahma who possesses, in a lesser degree, five more attributes which are not found in jivas. But in Sambhu both the fifty attributes of jivas as also the five additional attributes found in Brahma are present in even greater measure than in Brahma.
yat-pada-pallava-yugam vinidhaya kumbha-
dvandve pranama-samaye sa ganadhirajah
vighnan vihantum alam asya jagat-trayasya
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
yat--whose; pada-pallava--lotus feet; yugam--two; vinidhaya--having held; kumbha-dvandve--upon the pair of tumuli; pranama-samaye--at the time of offering obeisances; sah--he; gana-adhirajah--Ganesa; vighnan--obstacles; vihantum--to destroy; alam--capable; asya--of these; jagat-trayasya--three worlds; govindam--Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, whose lotus feet are always held by Ganesa upon the pair of tumuli protruding from his elephant head in order to obtain power for his function of destroying all the obstacles on the path of progress of the three worlds.
The power of destroying all obstacles to mundane prosperity has been delegated to Ganesa who is the object of worship to those who are eligible to worship him. He has obtained a rank among the five gods as Brahma possessing mundane quality. The self-same Ganesa is a god in possession of delegated power by infusion of the divine power. All his glory rests entirely on the grace of Govinda.
agnir mahi gaganam ambu marud disas ca
kalas tathatma-manasiti jagat-trayani
yasmad bhavanti vibhavanti visanti yam ca
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
The three worlds are composed of the nine elements, viz., fire, earth, ether, water, air, direction, time, soul and mind. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda from whom they originate, in whom they exist and into whom they enter at the time of the universal cataclysm.
There is nothing in the three worlds save the five elements, ten quarters, time, jiva-soul, and the mental principle allied with the subtle body consisting of mind, intelligence and ego of conditioned souls. The elevationists (karmis) make their offerings in sacrifice in the fire. Conditioned souls know nothing beyond this perceptible world of nine elements. The jiva is the self-same soul whose ecstatic delight the joyless liberationists (jnanis) aspire after. Both the principles that are respectively depicted as atma and prakrti by the system of Sankhya are included in the above. In other words all the principles that have been enunciated by all the speculative philosophers (tattva-vadis) are included in these nine elements. Sri Govinda is the source of the appearance, continuance and subsidence of all these principles.
yac-caksur esa savita sakala-grahanam
raja samasta-sura-murtir asesa-tejah
yasyajnaya bhramati sambhrta-kala-cakro
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
yat--of whom; caksuh--the eye; esah--the; savita--sun; sakala-grahanam--of all the planets; raja--the king; samasta-sura--of all the demigods; murtih--the image; asesa-tejah--full of infinite effulgence; yasya--of whom; ajnaya--by the order; bhramati--performs his journey; sambhrta--complete; kala-cakrah--the wheel of time; govindam--Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
The sun who is the king of all the planets, full of infinite effulgence, the image of the good soul, is as the eye of this world. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda in pursuance of whose order the sun performs his journey mounting the wheel of time.
Certain professors of the Vedic religion worship the sun as Brahman. The sun is one of the hierarchy of the five gods. Some people target in heat the source of this world and therefore designate the sun, the only location of heat, as the root cause of this world. Notwithstanding all that may be said to the contrary, the sun is after all only the presiding deity of a sphere of the sum total of all mundane heat and is hence a god exercising delegated authority. The sun performs his specific function of service certainly by the command of Govinda.
dharmo 'tha papa-nicayah srutayas tapamsi
brahmadi-kita-patagavadhayas ca jivah
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
dharmah--virtue; atha--also; papa-nicayah--all vices; srutayah--the Vedas; tapamsi--penances; brahma-adi--beginning from Lord Brahma; kita-pataga--insects; avadhayah--down to; ca--and; jivah--jivas; yat--by whom; datta--conferred; matra--exclusively; vibhava--by the power; prakata--manifested; prabhavah--potencies; govindam--Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, by whose conferred power are maintained the manifested potencies, that are found to exist, of all virtues, all vices, the Vedas, the penances and all jivas, from Brahma to the meanest insect.
By dharma is meant the allotted functions of varna and asrama manifested by the twenty dharma-sastras on the authority of the Vedas. Of these two divisions varna-dharma is that function which is the outcome of the distinctive natures of the four varnas, viz., brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra and asrama-dharma is that function which is appropriate to the respective asramas or stations of those who belong to the four stages, viz., brahmacarya, grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasa. All customary activities of mankind have been targeted in these twofold divisions. Sins mean nescience, the root of all sins and sinful desire, also the greatest iniquities and sins flowing from them and the ordinary sins, i.e., all sorts of unprincipled conduct. The category of the srutis means Rg, Sama, Yajur and Atharva and the Upanisads which form the crest jewels of the Veda. The tapas mean all regular practices that are learnt with the view of the attainment of the proper function of the self. In many cases, e.g., in the form known as panca-tapas these practices are of a difficult character (yoga) with its eight constituents limbs and devotedness to the knowledge of the undifferentiated Brahman are included therein. All these are so many distinctive features within the revolving round of the fruitive activities of conditioned souls. The conditioned souls are embarked on a sojourn of successive births from 84 lakhs of varieties of generating organs. They are differentiated into different orders of beings as devas, danavas, raksasas, manavas, nagas, kinnaras, and gandharvas. These jivas, from Brahma down to the small insect, are infinite in type. They make up the aggregate of the conditioned souls from the degree of Brahma to that of the little fly and are the distinctive features within the revolving wheel of karma. Every one of them is endowed with distinctive powers as individuals and is powerful in a particular sphere. But these powers are by their nature not fully developed in them. The degree of power and nature of property vary according to the measure of manifestation of the possessions of the individual conferred upon him by Sri Govinda.
yas tv indragopam athavendram aho sva-karma-
karmani nirdahati kintu ca bhakti-bhajam
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
yah--He who (Govinda); tu--but; indra-gopam--to the small red insect called indragopa; atha va--or even; indram--to Indra, king of heaven; aho--oh; sva-karma--of one's own fruitive activities; bandha--bondage; anurupa--according to; phala--of reactions; bhajanam--enjoying or suffering; atanoti--bestows; karmani--all fruitive activities and their reactions; nirdahati--destroys; kintu--but; ca--also; bhakti-bhajam--of persons engaged in devotional service; govindam--Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam--Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, who burns up to their roots all fruitive activities of those who are imbued with devotion and impartially ordains for each the due enjoyment of the fruits of one's activities, of all those who walk in the path of work, in accordance with the chain of their previously performed works, no less in the case of the tiny insect that bears the name of indragopa than in that of Indra, king of the devas.
God impartially induces the fallen souls to act in the way that is consequent on the deeds of their previous births and to enjoy the fruition of their labors but, out of His great mercy to His devotees, He purges out, by the fire of ordeal, the root of all karma, viz., nescience and evil desires. Karma, though without beginning, is still perishable. The karma of those, who work with the hope of enjoying the fruits of their labors, becomes everlasting and endless and is never destroyed. The function of sannyasa is also a sort of karma befitting an asrama and is not pleasant to Krsna when it aims at liberation, i.e., desire for emancipation. They also receive fruition of their karma and, even if it be disinterested, their karma ends in atma-mamata, i.e., self-pleasure; but those who are pure devotees always serve Krsna by gratifying His senses forsaking all attempts of karma and jnana, and being free from all desires save that of serving Krsna. Krsna has fully destroyed the karma, its desires and nescience of those devotees. It is a great wonder that Krsna, being impartial, is fully partial to His devotees.
yam--upon whom; krodha--wrath; kama--amorous passion; sahaja-pranaya--natural friendly love; adi--and so on; bhiti--fear; vatsalya--parental affection; moha--delusion; guru-gaurava--reverence; sevya-bhavaih--and with the attitude of willing service; sancintya--meditating; tasya--of that; sadrsim--befitting; tanum--bodily form; apuh--attained; ete--these persons; govindam--Govinda; adi-purusam--the original person; tam-- Him; aham--I; bhajami--worship.
I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, the meditators of whom, by meditating upon Him under the sway of wrath, amorous passion, natural friendly love, fear, parental affection, delusion, reverence and willing service, attain to bodily forms befitting the nature of their contemplation.
Devotion is of two kinds, viz., (1) of the nature of deference to regulation and (2) constituted of natural feeling. Bhakti is roused by following with a tinge of faith in the rule of the sastras and instruction of the preceptors. Such bhakti is of the nature of loyalty to the scriptural regulations. It continues to be operative as long as the corresponding natural feeling is not roused. If a person loves Krsna out of natural tendency. there is the principle of raga, which is no other than a strong desire to serve, which turns into bhava or substantive feeling. When the substantive feeling is aroused the devotee becomes an object of mercy of Krsna. It takes much time to attain this stage. Devotion which is of the nature of feeling is superior to that connected with scriptural regulation, soon attains to the realized state and is attractive to Krsna. Its various aspects are described in this sloka. Santa-bhava, full of reverence to superior, dasya-bhava, full of service for carrying out the commands of the object of worship, sakhya-bhava or natural friendly love, vatsalya-bhava or parental affection and madhura-bhava or amorous love, are all included in the category of devotion of the nature of instinctive attachment. But anger, fear and delusion, though they are of the nature of instinctive impulse, are not devotion in the strict sense of the term, because they are not friendly but hostile to the object. Anger is found in asuras like Sisupala, fear in Kamsa, and delusion in the panditas of the pantheistic school. They have the feelings of anger, fear and instinctive impulse marked by complete self-forgetful identification with the nondifferentiated Brahman. But as there is no friendly feeling towards the object of devotion there is no bhakti. Again among the feelings of santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhura--santa, though indifferent and dormant in raga, is still reckoned as bhakti on account of its being a little friendly. There is an immense volume of raga in the other four varieties of emotion. By the promise of Gita, ye yatha mam prapadyante tams tathaiva bhajamy aham ("I serve one according to his submission"), those, who allow themselves to be actuated by the sentiments of fear, anger and delusion, attain to sayujya-mukti (merging in the Absolute). The santas obtain bodily forms with aptitude for addiction to Brahman and Paramatma. The dasya and sakhya classes of worshipers attain bodily forms characterized by masculine or feminine disposition according to their respective grades of eligibility. The vatsalya class of worshipers get bodily forms befitting fatherly and motherly sentiments. The amorous lovers of Krsna attain the pure forms of gopis (spiritual milkmaids of Vraja).
sriyah kantah kantah parama-purusah kalpa-taravo
druma bhumis cintamani-gana-mayi toyam amrtam
katha ganam natyam gamanam api vamsi priya-sakhi
cid-anandam jyotih param api tad asvadyam api ca
sa yatra ksirabdhih sravati surabhibhyas ca su-mahan
nimesardhakhyo va vrajati na hi yatrapi samayah
bhaje svetadvipam tam aham iha golokam iti yam
vidantas te santah ksiti-virala-carah katipaye
I worship that transcendental seat, known as Svetadvipa where as loving consorts the Laksmis in their unalloyed spiritual essence practice the amorous service of the Supreme Lord Krsna as their only lover; where every tree is a transcendental purpose tree; where the soil is the purpose gem, all water is nectar, every word is a song, every gait is a dance, the flute is the favorite attendant, effulgence is full of transcendental bliss and the supreme spiritual entities are all enjoyable and tasty, where numberless milk cows always emit transcendental oceans of milk; where there is eternal existence of transcendental time, who is ever present and without past or future and hence is not subject to the quality of passing away even for the space of half a moment. That realm is known as Goloka only to a very few self-realized souls in this world.
That region which jivas attain by the best performance of their rasa-bhajana, though purely transcendental, is by no means devoid of variegatedness. The nondifferentiated region is attained by indulging in anger, fear and delusion. The devotees attain Goloka, the transcendental region above Vaikuntha, according to the quality of rasa of the respective services. In reality that region is no other than Svetadvipa or "the White Island," being exceedingly pure. Those, who attain the highest rasa in the shape of the realization of pure devotion in this world, viewing the reality of Svetadvipa in Gokula, Vrndavana and Navadvipa within this mundane world, designate the same as "Goloka." In that transcendental region of Goloka there are always visible, in their supreme beauty. all the distinctive entities that are incorporated in the pure cognitive principle, viz., the lover and His beloved ones, trees and creepers, mountains, rivers and forests, water, speech, movement, music of the flute, the sun and the moon, tasted and taste (i.e., the unthinkable wonders of the 64 aesthetic arts), milk cows yielding nectarean flow of milk and transcendental ever-existing time.
Descriptions that supply the clue to Goloka are found in various places in the Vedas and the other sastras such as the Puranas, tantras etc. The Chandogya says: bruyad yavan va ayam akasas tavan esa antar hrda akasah ubhe asmin dyava-prthivi antar eva samahite. ubhav agnis ca vayus ca surya--candramasav ubhau vidyun naksatrani yac casyehasti yac ca nasti sarvam tad asmin samahitam iti.
The sum and substance of it is that all the variegatedness of this mundane world and much more variety over and above the mundane, are to be found in Goloka. The variety in the transcendental world is fully centralized whereas in the mundane world it is not so and hence productive of weal and woe. The centralized variety of Goloka is unalloyed and full of transcendental cognitive joy. The Vedas and sadhus practicing devotion revealed by the Vedas, by availing the support of their individual cognitional aptitude actuated by devotion, may have a sight of divine realm and by the power of the grace of Krsna their tiny cognitive faculty attaining the quality of infinitude they are enabled to be on the level of the plane of enjoyments of Krsna.
There is a hidden meaning of the proposition "even the Supreme that is also nevertheless the object of enjoyment" (param api tad asvadyam api ca). The word param api indicates that Sri Krsna is the only Truth Absolute in all the transcendental blissful principles and tad asvadyam api means His object of enjoyment. The glory of Radha's love for Krsna, tasty quality (rasa) of Krsna that is realized by Radha and the bliss of which Radha is conscious in the process of such realization, all these threefold bhavas (emotional entities) becoming available for enjoyment by Krsna He attains His personality of Sri Gaurasundara. It is also this that constitutes the transcendental bliss of the delicious loving (rasa) service manifested by Sri Gaurasundara. This also eternally exists only in the selfsame Svetadvipa.
praja-sarge ca cen matih
panca-slokim imam vidyam
vatsa dattam nibodha me
On hearing these hymns containing the essence of the truth, the Supreme Lord Krsna said to Brahma, "Brahma, if you experience the inclination to create offspring by being endowed with the real knowledge of the glory of Godhead, listen, My beloved, from Me to this science set forth in the following five slokas.
The Supreme Lord became propitious when Brahma with great eagerness chanted the names, "Krsna" and "Govinda" expressive of the form, attribute and pastimes. Brahma was actuated by the desire for mundane creation. Krsna then said to Brahma how pure unalloyed devotion can be practiced by souls engaged in worldly occupations by combining the same with the desire for carrying out the behest of the Supreme Lord. "The knowledge absolute is knowledge of the glory of Godhead; if you want to procreate offspring being endowed with such knowledge, listen attentively to the science of devotion that is contained in the following five slokas."
(How bhakti is practiced by performing worldly duties in the form of carrying out the commands of the Supreme Lord, is being described).
prabuddhe--when excited; jnana--by cognition or knowledge; bhaktibhyam--and by devotional service; atmani--in the pure spirit soul; ananda-cit-mayi--full of knowledge and bliss; udeti--is awakened; anuttama--superexcellent; bhaktih--devotion; bhagavat--for Krsna; prema--by love; laksana--characterized.
When the pure spiritual experience is excited by means of cognition and service [bhakti], superexcellent unalloyed devotion characterized by love for Godhead is awakened towards Krsna, the beloved of all souls.
Real knowledge is nothing but knowledge of one's relationship to the Absolute. Real knowledge is identical with the knowledge of subjective natures of cit (animate), acit (inanimate) and Krsna and of their mutual relationship. Here mental speculation is not alluded to, since that is antagonistic to service (bhakti). The knowledge that embraces only the first seven of the ten basic principles (dasa-mula) is the knowledge of relationship. The substantive nature of the spiritual function (abhidheya) inculcated by the science of devotion hearing, chanting, meditation, tending His holy feet, worshiping by rituals, making prostrations, doing menial service, practicing friendship and surrendering oneself are identical with practicing the search for Krsna. It is specifically described in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu. Devotion (bhakti) characterized by love for Godhead makes her appearance by being awakened by such knowledge and practice. Such devotion is superexcellent bhakti and is no other than the final object of attainment of all spiritual endeavor of the individual soul (jiva).
The highest devotion is attained by slow degrees by the method of constant endeavor for self-realization with the help of scriptural evidence, theistic conduct and perseverance in practice.
Evidence--the devotional scriptures, e.g., Srimad-Bhagavatam, the Vedas, the Puranas, the Gita, etc. Theistic conduct--the conduct of pious persons (sadhus) who are pure devotees and the conduct of those pious persons who practice devotion to Godhead actuated by spontaneous love. Practice--to learn about the ten basic principles (dasa-mula) from the sastras and on receiving the name of Hari as laid down in the same, embodying the name, form, quality and activity of the Divinity. to practice the chanting of the name by serving Him night and day. By this are meant study of the sastras and association with the sadhus. The tenfold offense to holy name ceases by serving the name of Hari and simultaneously practicing pious conduct. "Practice" is no other than following the mode of service of the name practiced by the sadhus without offense. By perseverance in such practice and devotion characterized by love which is the fruit of spiritual endeavor makes her appearance in the pure essence of the soul.
yasyah sreyas-karam nasti
yaya nirvrtim apnuyat
ya sadhayati mam eva
bhaktim tam eva sadhayet
These preliminary practices of devotion [sadhana-bhakti] are conducive to the realization of loving devotion. [Loving devotion]--than whom there is no superior well-being, who goes hand in hand with the attainment of the exclusive state of supreme bliss and who can lead to Myself.
The jiva-soul has no better well-being than loving devotion. In this is realized the final beatitude of jivas. The lotus feet of Krsna are attainable only by loving devotion. He who cultivates the preliminary devotional activities anxiously keeping in view that realized state of devotion can alone attain to that object of all endeavor. None else can have the same.
Abandoning all meritorious performances serve Me with faith. The realization will correspond to the nature of one's faith. The people of the world act ceaselessly in pursuance of some ideal. By meditating on Me by means of those deeds one will obtain devotion characterized by love in the shape of the supreme service.
The function characterized by unalloyed devotion is the real function of all individual souls (jivas). All other varieties of function are activities of the external cases. These exoteric and esoteric dharmas (functions) are manifold, e.g., nondifferential knowledge of the Brahman aiming at extinction of individuality. the astanga-yoga-dharma having as its goal attainment of the state of exclusive existence (kaivalya), atheistical fruitive ritualism aiming at material enjoyment, jnana-yoga-dharma seeking to combine knowledge with fruitive activity and the practice of the function of barren asceticism. Getting rid of all these, serve Me by pure devotion rooted in faith. Exclusive faith in Me is trust. Faith in the form of trust by the process of gradual purification tends to become a constant engagement (nistha), an object of liking (ruci), of attachment (asakti) and a real sentiment (bhava). The more transparent the faith, the greater the degree of realization. If you ask--How will the preservation and conduct of worldly affairs be feasible if one is continuously engaged in the endeavor for the realization of bhakti? What also will be the nature of the endeavor for the realization of bhakti when the body will perish consequent on the cessation of the function of the body and of society?
In order to strike at the root of this misgiving the Supreme Lord says, "This world subsists by the constant performance of certain activities. Fill all these activities with meditation of Me. This will destroy the quality that makes those activities appear as acts done by you. They will then be of the nature of My service (bhakti).
"Mankind live by the threefold activities of body. mind and society. Eating, seating, walking, resting, sleeping, cleansing the body. covering the body. etc., are the various bodily activities; thinking, recollecting, retaining an impression, becoming aware of an entity. feeling pleasure and pain, etc., are the mental feats; marrying, practicing reciprocal relationship between the king and subject, practicing brotherhood, attending at sacrificial meetings, offering oblations, digging wells, tanks, etc., for the benefit of the people, maintaining one's relations, practicing hospitality. observing proper civic conduct, showing due respect to others are the various social activities. When these acts are performed for one's selfish enjoyment, they are called karma-kanda; when the desire for attainment of freedom from activity by knowledge underlies these actions, they are termed jnana-yoga or karma-yoga. And when these activities are managed to be performed in this way that is conducive to our endeavor for attainment of bhakti they are called jnana-bhakta-yoga, i.e., the subsidiary devotional practices. But only those activities that are characterized by the principle of pure worship are called bhakti proper. My meditation is practiced in every act when bhakti proper is practiced in due time while performing the subsidiary devotional activities in one's intercourse with the ungodly people of this world. In such position, a jiva does not become apathetic to Godhead even by performing those worldly activities. This constitutes the practice of looking inwards, i.e., turning towards one's real self, vide Isopanisad--
isavasyam idam sarvam
yat kinca jagatyam jagat
tena tyaktena bhunjitha
ma grdhah kasya svid dhanam
The commentator says in regards to this, tena isa-tyaktena visrstena. The real significance being that if whatever is accepted be received as favor vouchsafed by the Supreme Lord, the worldly activity will cease to be such and will turn into service of Godhead (bhakti). So Isavasya says kurvann eveha karmani... karma lipyate nare.
If the worldly acts are performed in the above manner one does not get entangled in karma even in hundreds of years of worldly life. The meaning of these two mantras from the jnana point of view is renouncement of the fruits of one's worldly actions; but from the bhakti point of view they mean the attainment of Krsna's favor (prasadam) by their transfer to His account. In this method, which is the path of arcana, you should do your duties of the world by the meditation of worshiping Godhead thereby. Brahma cherishes the desire for creation in his heart. If that creative desire is practiced by conjoining the same with the meditation of obeying therein the command of the Supreme Lord, then it will be a subsidiary spiritual function (gauna-dharma) being helpful for the growth of the disposition for the service of the Divinity by reason of its characteristic of seeking the protection of Godhead. It was certainly proper to instruct Brahma in this manner. There is no occasion for such instruction in the case of a jiva in whom the spontaneous aversion for entities other than Krsna manifests itself on his attainment of the substantive entity of spiritual devotion (bhava).
aham hi visvasya caracarasya
bijam pradhanam prakrtih pumams ca
mayahitam teja idam bibharsi
vidhe vidhehi tvam atho jaganti
aham--I; hi--certainly; visvasya--of the world; cara-acarasya--of animate and inanimate objects; bijam--the seed; pradhanam--the substance of matter; prakrtih--the material cause; puman--the purusa; ca--and; maya--by Me; ahitam--conferred; tejah--fiery energy; idam--this; bibharsi--you bear; vidhe--O Brahma; vidhehi--regulate; tvam--you; atha u--now; jaganti--the worlds.
"Listen, O Vidhi, I am the seed, i.e., the fundamental principle, of this world of animate and inanimate objects. I am pradhana [the substance of matter], I am prakrti [material cause] and I am purusa [efficient cause]. This fiery energy that belongs specially to the Brahman, that inheres in you, has also been conferred by Me. It is by bearing this fiery energy that you regulate this phenomenal world of animate and inanimate objects."
Certain thinkers conclude that the nondifferentiated Brahman is the ultimate entity and by undergoing self-delusion (vivarta) exhibits the consciousness of differentiation; or, the limiting principle itself (Maya), when it is limited, is the phenomenal world and is itself the Brahman, in its unlimited position; or, the Brahman is the substance and this phenomenal world is the reflection; or, everything is an illusion of the jiva. Some think that Godhead is evidently a separate entity. Jiva is another different entity. and the phenomenal world, although it is a singular principle, exists separately as an eternally independent entity; or, Godhead, is the substantive entity and all other entities, as cit and a-cit attributes, are one in principle. Some suppose that by the force of inconceivable potency sometimes the monistic and sometimes the dualistic principle is realized as the truth. Some again arrive at the conclusion that the theory of the nondual minus all potency is meaningless; whence the Brahman is the one eternally unalloyed entity vested with the pure potency.
These speculations have originated from Veda relying on the support of the Vedanta-sutra. In these speculations although there is no truth that holds good in all positions, there is yet a certain measure of truth. Not to speak of the anti-Vedic speculations Sankhya, Patanjala, Nyaya and Vaisesika, nor even of Purva-mimamsa which is fond of exclusive fruitive activity in conformity with the teaching of one portion of the Veda, the bodies of opinions detailed above have also come into existence by relying outwardly on the Vedanta itself. By discarding all these speculations, you and your bona fide community should adopt the ultimate principle identical with the doctrine of acintya-bhedabheda (inconceivable
simultaneous distinction and nondifference). This will make you eligible for being a true devotee. The basic principle is that this animate world is made up of jivas and the inanimate world is constituted of matter. Of these all the jivas have been manifested by My supreme (para) potency and this phenomenal world has been manifested by My secondary (apara) potency. I am the cause of all causes. In other words, I regulate all of them by the power of My will although I am not a different entity from the marginal and material (tatastha and acit) potencies. By the transformation of those distinct potencies pradhana (substantive material principle), prakrti (material cause) and purusa (efficient cause) have been produced. Hence although as regards the subjective nature of all potency I am pradhana, prakrti and purusa, yet as the possessor of power I am eternally distinct from all those potencies. This simultaneous distinction and nondifference has also sprung from My inconceivable power. So let the attainment of love for Krsna by the practice of pure devotion through the knowledge of their mutual true relationship that subsists between the jiva, the jada (matter) and Krsna based on the principle of inconceivable simultaneous distinction and non-difference, be My instruction for being handed down in the order of spiritual preceptional succession in your community (Sri Brahma-sampradaya).