Sri Goverdhan's appearance in this world - how Goverdhan has got the appellation Giriraj' is narrated in Gargasamhita', Vrindavan section, chapter 2, written by Sri Gargacharyya. The topic was discussed in the dialogue between Nanda Maharaj and senior advisor Gop Sannanda. Sannanda spoke to Nanda Maharaj giving reference to the conversation between Pandu and Bhisma.
Sri Krishna willing to appear in this world to allay the burden of earth - burden of the grave sins committed by demoniacs, directed Radhika to appear in this world. Radharani expressed her unwillingness to go to a place where there is no presence of Vrindavan, Yamuna and Sri Goverdhan. Sri Krishna sent His own Transcendental Spiritual Realm - Vrajadham - 84 Krosh area (1 Krosh equal to 3 kilometers), i.e., 252 kilometers area to descend in India in this world. Vrajadham is not a part of material world consisting of earth, water, fire, air and sky. Goverdhan has appeared as son of Dron mountain in Shalmoli Island, towards West-India. All demigods were exceedingly delighted at the appearance of Goverdhan and showered flowers.
All big mountains - the Himalayas, the Sumeru etc. were happy to hear about Goverdhan's appearance. They came to pay their homage to Goverdhan and to worship Him. In their prayer they have stated - As Goverdhan is the holy place of pastimes of Supreme Lord Sri Krishna in the Transcendental Sweet Goloka Realm, He is the King of all mountains, the crown of Goloka, He is like an umbrella of Para Brahma Sri Krishna and Vrindavan is within His lap.' Since then Goverdhan is renowned as Giriraj.
Pulastya Rishi is one of the seven sons of Brahma, born out of his mind - known as Manasa-Putra. Once upon a time, Pulastya Rishi traveling on a pilgrimage came to Shalmoli island and was astonished and charmed to see the extraordinary beauty of Goverdhan mountain, adorned with variety of fruit trees, flower trees, pleasant sitting places, springs, radish, soft grass etc. When Pulastya Muni approached Dronachal, he was worshipped by Dronachal.
Pulastya Muni said to Dronachal, "I live in Kashi - special significance - presence of the Ganges and Visweswar Mahadev. Sinners go there to get salvation. But my desire is to perform penance there after installing Goverdhan." Dronachal although extremely worried due to his affection for the child, out of fear of being cursed, directed the child to go to the holy place Bharat (India) with the Muni. Initially Goverdhan was in length 64 miles, breadth 40 miles and height 16 miles [Present length of Goverdhan is approximately 7 miles].
Question arose how Muni could carry the big mountain. Pulastya Muni said that he could easily carry the mountain by keeping it on the palm of his hand. Goverdhan agreed to go with Muni on condition if Muni alights the mountain on the ground anywhere while going, due to heaviness, He will remain there, He will not move. Pulastya Muni accepted the condition and promised that he would carry the mountain to the destination, he would not keep it down on the land anywhere. Muni by keeping the mountain on the right hand palm was moving slowly to the destination. But what happened, when Muni reached Vrajadham, Goverdhan on seeing Yamuna, Vrindavan and remembering sweet pastimes of Krishna, wanted to remain there and became very heavy. Muni was very much distressed and kept the mountain on the land forgetting the condition and promise. Muni after finishing his daily evacuation, bath and Sandhya-puja (reciting silently in prayers), returned to the place and asked Goverdhan to sit on his hand palm. Goverdhan expressed His reluctance to move. Pulastya Muni tried his best to lift the mountain but was unable to move. He became enraged and cursed Goverdhan that He will have His decay daily measuring one seed of sesame.
The present diminished Goverdhan is now about 7 miles. As long as Goverdhan will exist, the black age (Kaliyuga) will not be able to show it's paramount power, but after thousands of years when Goverdhan and Yamuna will disappear, Kali will be vehemently strong and all living beings will be oppressed and tortured to the extreme, the plight of human beings will be precarious.
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